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Maʿbad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUkaym al-D̲j̲uhanī

(637 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, early representative of Ḳadarī ideas, ¶ executed after the insurrection of Ibn al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ [ q.v.], in 83/703. He was probably born about 20/640 or even earlier. He had contacts with Muʿāwiya (41-60/661-80), and ʿAbd al-Malik appreciated him to such an extent that he sent him as an ambassador to Byzantium and entrusted him with the education of his son Saʿīd al-K̲h̲ayr. According to a rather detailed, but perhaps fictitious report he played a certain political role as early as 38/658, during the negotiations…

al-Nās̲h̲iʾ al-Akbar

(539 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Mālik al-Anbārī, called (Ibn) S̲h̲irs̲h̲īr, poet and Muʿtazilī theologian who died in 293/906. All we know about his life refers to the period when he lived in Bag̲h̲dād, obviously as a state official ( kātib ); when he left ʿIrāḳ before 280/893, possibly in connection with the downfall of the vizier Ibn Bulbul in 279/892, in order to go to Egypt, he disappears from our sources. He was a man of vast culture, but he used his knowledge mainly for criticism and therefore did not always win friends. He attacked the philosopher al-Kindī [ q.v.] as …

Wāṣil b. ʿAṭāʾ

(1,294 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, early theologian and ascetic who died in 131/748-9, shortly before the final success ¶ of the ʿAbbāsid revolution, probably as a victim of the plague which raged at Baṣra during the same year. Further information about him is scarce and not always beyond suspicion. In a polemical letter of unknown origin addressed to ʿAmr b. ʿUbayd [ q.v.], Wāṣil is supposed to have been present, as a rather prominent disciple, at one of the courses given by al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī [ q.v.] during a visit to Medina some time before 110/728. Whether at that moment he lived in the Ḥid̲j̲āz or had i…

Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Baṣrī

(2,640 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, al-ḥusayn b. ʿalī b. ibrāhīm al-kāg̲h̲adī , called (al)-d̲j̲uʿal, “Dungbeetle”, influential Muʿtazilī theologian and Ḥanafī jurist, died 2 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 369/19 June 980 in Bag̲h̲dād. He was born in Baṣra, at an uncertain date (293/905-6 according to Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād , viii, 73, ll. 20 ff, following ʿAlī b. al-Muḥassin al-Tanūk̲h̲ī and Hilāl al-Ṣābiʾ; 308/920-1 according to the Fihrist , ed. Flügel, 174, pu.; 289/902 according to Safadī, cf. Kaḥḥāla, Muʿd̲j̲am al-muʾallifīn , iv, 27, n. 1). The nickname D̲j̲uʿal is not used in Muʿtazilī or Ḥanafī sources. He left Baṣra a…

al-K̲h̲ayyāṭ

(2,133 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, Abu ’l-Ḥusayn ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. Muḥammad b. ʿUt̲h̲mān , theologian and jurist, ca. 220/835— ca. 300/913, foremost representative of the Bag̲h̲dād school of the Muʿtazila at his time. He still remembered D̲j̲aʿfar b. Mubas̲h̲s̲h̲ir (died 234/849), whom he had asked certain questions on a much-debated exegetical problem (cf. Ibn al-Murtaḍā, Ṭabaḳāt al-Muʿtazila , 76, ll. 5 ff.), but he seems to have received his main theological training from two members of the following generation about whom we know little, sc. ʿĪsā b. al-Hay…

Abū ʿAmmār

(432 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
ʿabd al-kāfī b. abī yaʿḳūb b. ismāʿīl al-t(anāw(a)tī , Ibāḍī theologian who ¶ lived in the middle of the 6th/13th century. He studied in the oasis of Wargla/Ward̲j̲lān (in modern Algeria) wim Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā b. Abī Bakr, the famous Ibāḍī historian (cf. EI 2, I, 167), and also in Tunis, with what must have been Sunnī authorities there. He was a tribesman, and as such he does not entirely fit the model of the bourgeois scholar; he is reported to have come with his herds to the Mzāb and to have proselytised among the tribes of that region, one which was to become a stronghold of Ibāḍī faith later on. H…

T̲h̲umāma b. As̲h̲ras

(630 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, Abū Maʿn al-Numayrī , Muʿtazilī theologian, d. 213/828. Of Arab descent (and proud of it), he entered upon a secretary’s career. He served under the Barmakids and was put under arrest after their downfall in 186/802. However, in 192/807 his reputation had so far been restored that Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd had him join his expedition to K̲h̲urāsān. When, one year later, the caliph died at Ṭūs, T̲h̲umāma stayed in the East with al-Maʾmūn, obviously as one of his administrative advisers. In 201/817 we find him a…

al-Īd̲j̲ī

(632 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, ʿAḍud al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Rukn al-Dīn b. ʿAbd al-G̲h̲affār al-Bakrī al-S̲h̲abānkārī , S̲h̲āfiʿī jurist and As̲h̲ʿarī theologian. Born probably after 680/1281 in Īg, the chief town of S̲h̲abānkāra, he began his theological education mainly among the pupils of al-Bayḍāwī. The last Īlk̲h̲ān, Abū Saʿīd (716-36/1316-36), invited him to his court in Sulṭāniyya and appointed him ḳāḍī al-mamālik , probably on the suggestion of his vizier G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn (728-36/1328-36), with whom al-Īd̲j̲ī had formed …

al-Naẓẓām

(1,474 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Sayyār b. Hāniʾ, Muʿtazilī theologian, who died between 220/835 and 230/845 while still, as it seems, at the height of his powers. He had been trained in Baṣra, mainly in the circle of his maternal uncle Abu ’l-Hud̲h̲ayl al-ʿAllāf [ q.v.], but he succeeded in getting access to the court at Bag̲h̲dād after 204/819 when the caliph al-Maʾmūn [ q.v.] had returned from Marw. He may have owed his career to his poetical and rhetorical talent as well. His poetry, though not copious, was highly appreciated for its modernity. Like Abū Nuwās, who…

Kumūn

(1,626 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, “latency”, a key-notion of speculative physics in early Muslim theology, especially in the system of al-Naẓẓām [ q.v.]. The concept was derived from simple observations: blood is “hidden” in the body of man, oil in sesame, flour in wheat, butter in milk etc.; these substances can be made patent by certain procedures, such as grinding, churning etc. On the other hand, new substances can be produced by putting several ingredients together: pottery results from the “mixture” of clay, water, and fire, and these prim…

al-Manzila Bayn al-Manzilatayn

(911 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, a theological term used by Wāṣil b. ʿAṭāʾ [ q.v.] and the later Muʿtazila [ q.v.] for designating the salvational status ofthe mortal sinner ( fāsiḳ [ q.v.]). The word manzila alone is attested, in the technical sense of “salvational status”, in Ḥadīt̲h̲ (cf. Muttaḳī al-Hindi, Kanz al-ʿummāl , i, 28, no. 519) and, later than Wāṣil, in the K. al-ʿĀlim wa ’l-mutaʿallim which was probably composed by Abū Ḥanīfa’s pupil Abū Muḳātil Ḥafṣ b. Salm al-Samarḳandī in the second half of the 2nd century (cf. ed. Hyderabad 1349, 20, 11. 4 ff. and Schacht, in Oriens , xvii [1964], …

Tas̲h̲bīh wa-Tanzīh

(3,009 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, two terms of Islamic theology which stand for different discourses about God, tas̲h̲bīh roughly meaning “anthropomorphism” and tanzīh “transcendentalism” (Greek ἀφαίρεσις). They are, however, not used on the same level; tanzīh has a positive connotation whereas tas̲h̲bīh, together with ¶ its derivatives mus̲h̲abbih and mus̲h̲abbiha (denoting a person or a group practising tas̲h̲bīh ), is used in polemical language, as a derogatory term. The negative equivalent to tanzīh is taʿṭīl , divesting God of his attributes; as the positive pendant to tas̲h̲bīh, it̲h̲bāt

Ḳadariyya

(4,746 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, a name commonly used by Islamists to denote a group of theologians, not in itself homogeneous, who represented in one form or another the principle of liberum arbitrium (free will) in the early period of Islam, from about 70/690 ¶ to the definitive consolidation of the Muʿtazila [ q.v.] at the beginning of the 3rd/9th century. In Islamic sources the notion is ambivalent; only authors of a determinist standpoint use it in the above sense (in later works the term can also refer to the Muʿtazila). Authors of a non-determinist standpoint, on the…

T̲h̲umāma b. As̲h̲ras

(637 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
Abu Maʿn al-Numayrī, théologien muʿtazilite, m. 213/828. D’origine arabe (et fier de l’être), il s’engagea dans la carrière de secrétaire. Il exerça ses fonctions sous les Barmakides et fut arrêté après leur chute en 186/802. Cependant, dès 192/807, il s’était refait une telle réputation qu’Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd lui demanda de se joindre à son expédition vers le Ḵh̲urāsān, Quand, un an plus tard, le calife mourut à Ṭūs, T̲h̲umāma demeura en Orient, avec al-Maʾmūn, de toute évidence pour être l’un de …

Wāṣil b. ʿAṭāʾ

(1,326 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, ancien théologien et ascète qui mourut en 131/748-9, peu avant le triomphe de la révolution ʿabbāside, probablement victime de la peste qui sévit à Baṣra cette même année. Outre cela, les renseignements à son sujet sont rares et pas toujours dignes de foi. Dans une lettre polémique d’origine inconnue adressée à ʿAmr b. ʿUbayd [ q.v.], Wāṣil aurait assisté, en tant que disciple assez éminent, à l’un des cours donnés par al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī [ q.v.] lors de sa visite à Médine un peu avant 110/728. Il n’est pas établi clairement s’il habitait à ce moment là dans le Ḥid̲j̲ā…

al-Īd̲j̲ī

(628 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, ʿAḍud al-dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Rukn al-dīn b. ʿAbd al-G̲h̲affār al-Bakrī al-S̲h̲abānkārī, ¶ juriste s̲h̲āfiʿite et théologien as̲h̲ʿarite. Né à Īg, ville principale du S̲h̲abānkāra. probablement après 680/1281, il commença son instruction théologique surtout parmi les disciples d’al-Bayḍāwī. Le dernier des Īlk̲h̲āns, Abū Saʿīd (716-36/1316-36), l’invita à sa cour à Sulṭāniyya et le nomma ḳāḍī l-mamālik, probablement sur les instances de son vizir G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-dīn Muḥammad b. Ras̲h̲īd al-dīn (728-36/1328-36) dont al-Īd̲j̲ī avait fait la connaissan…

Abū ʿAmmār

(389 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
ʿAbd al-Kāfī b. Abī YaʿḲūb b. Ismaʿīl al-T(a)nāw(a)tī, théologien ibāḍite qui vivait au milieu du VIe/XIIe siècle. Il fit ses études à Ouargla (Ward̲j̲ilān) sous la direction de l’historien ibāḍite Abū Zakariyyāʾ [ q.v.], et à Tunis, probablement avec des maîtres sunnites. C’était un Bédouin qui ne pouvait donc correspondre au modèle du savant bourgeois, et l’on dit qu’il fit du prosélytisme dans les tribus de la région qui devait devenir une forteresse de la foi ibāḍite. Son principal ouvrage est le K. al-Mūd̲j̲iz (Mūd̲j̲az?) fī taḥṣīl al-suʾāl wa-lak̲h̲līṣ al-ḍalāl (ou wa-talk̲h̲īṣ …

al-Naẓẓām

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Sayyār b. Hānīʾ, théologien muʿtazilite qui mourut entre 220 et 230/835-45, encore, semble-t-il, en possession de tous ses moyens. Il avait été formé à Baṣra, surtout dans le cercle de son oncle maternel, Abū l-Hud̲h̲ayl al-ʿAllāf [ q.v.], mais il eut accès à la cour de Bag̲h̲dad après 204/819 et le retour d’al-Maʾmūn [ q.v.] de Marw. Il peut aussi avoir dû le succès de sa carrière à son talent poétique et rhétorique. Sa poésie, quoique peu abondante, était appréciée pour sa modernité. Comme Abū Nuwās [ q.v.], qu’il admirait, il célébrait excellement le vin et la…

al-K̲h̲ayyāṭ

(2,025 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
Abū l-Ḥusayn ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. Muḥammad b. ʿUt̲h̲mān, théologien et juriste vers 220-vers 300/835-913), principal représentant de l’école muʿtazilite de Bag̲h̲dād à son époque. Il se souvenait encore de Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Mubas̲h̲s̲h̲ir (m. 234/849) à qui il avait posé certaines questions sur un problème d’exégèse très discuté (cf. Ibn al-Murtaḍā, Ṭabaḳāt al-Muʿtazila, 76, l. 5 sqq.), mais il paraît avoir principalement reçu sa formation théologique de deux membres de la génération suivante sur lesquels nous ne possédons guère de renseignements: ʿIsā b. a…

Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Baṣrī

(2,202 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm al-Kāg̲h̲adī, dit (al-) Ḏj̲uʿal «le Scarabée», théologien muʿtazilite et juriste ḥanafite influent, qui mourut à Bag̲h̲dād le 2 d̲h̲ū l-ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 369/19 juin 980; il était né à Baṣra à une date incertaine (293/905-6 d’après al-Ḵh̲aṭīb, Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād, VIII, 73, suivant al-Tanūk̲h̲ī et Hilāl al-Ṣābiʾ; 308/920-1 selon le Fihrist, 174; 289/902 d’après al-Ṣafadī; cf. Kaḥḥāla, IV, 27, n. l). Le surnom de Ḏj̲uʿal n’est pas employé dans les sources muʿtazilites ou ḥanafites. Il quitta Baṣra dans sa jeunesse, peut-être devant le danger const…
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