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Mühimme Defterleri

(2,090 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
(t.), a term of Ottoman Turkish administration. This series of “Registers of Important Affairs” is for the most part kept in the Başbakanlık Arşivi-Osmanlı Arşivi, Istanbul. Two hundred and sixty-three registers are ¶ catalogued as Mühimme Defterleri (MD), but in addition, we find registers and fragments of registers in other series which help fill some of the gaps in the MD series. On the other hand, thirteen registers catalogued as MDs are really appointment registers ( ruűs defterleri). Two registers in the Kâmil Kepeci section are also MDs, and two others have been l…


(1,019 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
(a.), a technical term of Ottoman administration. Derived from an Arabic verb which denotes “writing”, this word is at times used in the same sense in Ottoman Turkish as well. But as a technical term, taḥrīr has come to denote the Ottoman tax registers for the most part compiled during the 9th-10th/15th-16th centuries ( Başbakanlik Osmanh arşivi rehberi, Ankara 1992, 186-228, records them under this term, a synonym being tapu taḥrīr defterleri). This is one of the best-known series of the Ottoman archives, which in turn can be subdivided into defter-i mufaṣṣal , defter-i id̲j̲māl and defte…

S̲h̲ebṣefā (S̲h̲ebiṣefā, S̲h̲ebṣafā) Ḳadi̊n

(220 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, Ottoman princess (d. 1220/1805), probably the sixth in rank among the ḳadi̊n s of Sultan ʿAbdülḥamīd I. She was the mother of a prince who died young and of Princess Hibetullāh Sulṭān (b. 1202/1788). In 1212/1798 she acquired the čiftlik of D̲j̲ihān-zāde Ḥüseyin Beg, and also owned agricultural land in the vicinity of Salonica or Selānik [ q.v.], apart from a pension out of the funds of the Istanbul customs. S̲h̲ebṣefā Ḳadi̊n is noted for the foundation bearing her name in the Istanbul area of Zeyrek, established in 1202/1787 according to the inscrip…

Yaʿḳūb Pas̲h̲a

(615 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, physician and official for the Ottoman sultan Meḥemmed the Conqueror. Ottoman, Jewish and Venetian sources provide information about him, called Jacopo or Giacomo in Italian sources, yet due to the possibility that other personalities named Yaʿḳūb or even anonymous ones may have been intended by some of the surviving texts, much of his life remains obscure. He was born around 829-34/1425-30 and came from the Italian town of Gaeta. Of a Jewish family, he remained a Jew through most of his career, but beca…


(4,115 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, the Ottoman Turkish name for classical and early Byzantine Thessalonike, modern Greek Thessaloniki, conventional form Salonica; the largest city of Macedonia, on the gulf of the same name, to the east of the Vardar river mouth. The city has always possessed a large and secure port, and was located on the Via Egnatia connecting Durazzo (Durrës) with Byzantium. In the 5th/11th century, it is first named Salonikion, from which all variant names derive: Ṣalūnīk or Ṣalūnīḳ in Arabic, Solun in Bulga…


(1,378 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, a town on the northern, Black Sea coast of Asia Minor, in the eastern part of classical Pontus and in the later mediaeval Islamic Lazistān [see laz ], now in the Turkish Republic (lat. 41° 03′ N., long. 40° 31′ E.). In Byzantine times, Rhizus/Rhizaion was a place of some importance and was strongly fortified. With the Ottoman annexation of the Comneni empire of Trebizond in 865/1462 [see ṭarabzun ], it became part of the Ottoman empire. A list of Orthodox Church metropolitanates still in existence at the end of the 9th/15th century mentions…


(2,440 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, the form found in Islamic sources from the 6th/12th century onwards for the Turkish town of Si̇vas , a town of north-east central Anatolia, lying in the broad valley of the Kızıl Irmak [ q.v.] at an altitude of 1,275 m/4,183 feet (lat. 39° 44′ N., long. 37° 01′ E.). It is now the chef-lieu of the il or province of the same name in the modern Turkish Republic. There may well have been a Hittite settlement there, but the site only emerges into history as the Roman city of Sebasteia, the capital of Armenia Minor under Diocletian. It was a wealthy and flourishing ci…


(2,263 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, the Ottoman Turkish form of the Serbian town of Smederovo, older form Semendria. Lying on the Danube downstream from Belgrade [ q.v.] (lat. 44° 40′ N., long. 20° 56′ E.), it was in pre-modern times a fortified town and, under the Ottomans, the chef-lieu of a sand̲j̲aḳ of the same name. Since the break-up of Yugoslavia, it has come within the Serbian Republic. A first conquest under Murād II (842/1438) did not lead to permanent incorporation into the Ottoman Empire, since due to the crisis of 847-8/1444 the sultan thought it necessary to preserve the Serbia…


(474 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, a town of north central Anatolia, lying some 160 km/100 miles east of Ankara on both sides of a tributary of the Delice Irmak (lat. 39° 50’ N., long. 34° 48’ E., altitude 1,320 m/4,330 feet). It was founded by members of the D̲j̲ebbārzāde/Čapanog̲h̲lu family (supposedly yoz means “pasture, herd”, while gat is a dialectal word for “town”). On record since 1116/1704, this dynasty, possibly of Mamalu-Türkmen background, constituted one of the major aʿyān lines of central Anatolia, controlling a territory far beyond its original power-base in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Bozoḳ ( wilāyet


(1,706 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, modern Tksh. Muğla , a town of south-western Anatolia. In Antiquity it was known as Mobolla or Mogolla; the Byzantine period has not left any traces either in Mug̲h̲la itself or its immediate environment. From the second half of the 7th/13th century onward, the area was conquered by the Turks and became the site of the Mentes̲h̲e Og̲h̲ullari̊ [ q.v.] principality. This principality was centred upon Milas and Pečin (the latter settlement was finally abandoned in the middle of the 20th century and is today an important archeological site). Mug̲h̲la was s…


(1,549 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, modern form İzmi̇t , a town of northwestern Turkey, lying at the head of the Gulf of Izmit (Izmit Körfezi) in lat. 40° 47′ N., long. 29° 55′ E. It is the classical Nicomedia, named after Nicomedes I of Bithynia, who in 264 B.C. founded it as his new capital. The Roman emperor Diocletian made it in the late 3rd century A.D. his capital in the east; it was there that he abdicated in 305 (see W. Ruge, art. Nikomedeia , in PW, xvii/1, cols. 468-92). The spelling Nikumīdiyya appears in such Arabic geographers as Ibn Ḵh̲urradād̲h̲bih and al-Idrīsī, and subsequently, forms like Izn…


(2,852 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, the Turkish form of the ancient Greek name Smyrna , one of the great mercantile cities of the Eastern Mediterranean. It lies in western Anatolia at the head of the Gulf of Izmir, and the pre-modern city lay mainly on the small delta plain of the Kızılcullu (ancient Melas) river. Izmir has a history going back five millennia, archaeological excavations having revealed the earliest level of occupation as contemporary with the first city of Troy at the beginning of the Bronze Age ( ca. 3,000 B.C.). Greek settlement is indicated from ca. 1,000 B.C., and Herodotus says that the city was f…


(1,220 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, modern Turkish Nevşehir, a town of central Anatolia in the Cappadocia of classical antiquity. It lies 60 km/40 miles to the west of Kayseri [see Ḳayṣariyya ] and 13 km/9 miles south of the Kızıl Irmak river [ q.v.] at an altitude of approx. 1,180 m/3,600 feet (lat. 38° 38′ N., long. 34° 43′ E.). It is now the chef-lieu of an il or province of the same name; in 1970 the town had a population of 57,556 and the il one of 231,873. The News̲h̲ehir region was in the 6th to 9th centuries AD known for its monastic caves, and became a frontier region during the Arab invasions. The inha…


(2,215 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
(modern Turkish spelling, Samsun), a town of northern Asia Minor, in the classical Pontus. The Byzantine settlement, known as Amisus, attracted the attention of the Dānis̲h̲mendids [ q.v.]; as Sāmiya, it is mentioned in the historical epos known as the Dānis̲h̲mend-nāme . The city passed into Turkish hands at the end of the 6th/12th century, but was temporarily retaken by the Byzantines; in 608-9/1212, Samsun formed part of the Comnene principality of Trebizond. When before 585/1189 Sultan Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan divide…


(376 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
(t.), lit. “pedestrian”, denoted, in Ottoman military usage of the 8th-10th/14th-16th centuries, infantryman. Originally forming part of the k̲h̲āṣṣa army serving directly under the ruler, in the 10th/16th century the yaya were considered part of the provincial forces. According to Meḥmed Nes̲h̲rī [ q.v.], under Sultan Ork̲h̲ān peasant taxpayers were offered the opportunity of joining the army as yaya, and large numbers of people applied. Under Murād II, the yaya were supposedly given the nickname enik (puppy) as a form of derision (Nes̲h̲rī, Kitâb-ı Cihân-nümâ


(2,933 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, the Turkish form of Trebizond , Greek Τραπεζοῦς, a town on the Black Sea shores of northern Anatolia. At the dissolution of the Byzantine Empire after the Frankish-Venetian conquest of Byzantium in 600-601 /1204, Ṭarabzun, which had been occupied briefly by the Sald̲j̲ūḳs at the end of the 6th/11th century, became the centre of a principality governed by a branch of the Comnene dynasty. The latter continued to use the Byzantine imperial title, and the strong walls of the Citadel and Middle City (Orta Ḥiṣār), whi…

Maʿmūrat al-ʿAzīz

(1,168 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, a town in eastern Anatolia, modern Turkish Elaziğ, now the chef-lieu of a vilayet of the latter name. The area around the town is rich in evidence of prehistoric and protohistoric settlement. Bronze Age sites have been investigated at Ağin, Norçuntepe, Tepecik and Han İbrāhīm Şah, whilst traces of Hellenistic and later occupation have been found at Aşvankale and Kalecikler. Thus a more or less continuous occupation of the Elaziğ area since Chalcolithic times seems likely, even though it is not certain exactly at…


(1,473 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, the Ottoman Turkish form of the name of the Romanian town of Iaşi, conventionally Jassy. It lies on the plain of northeastern Moldavia near the confluence of the Bahlui river with the Prut (lat. 47° 10′ N., long. 27° 35′ E.). ¶ In Ottoman times, it was the capital of the principality of Bog̲h̲dān [ q.v.] or Moldavia. Dimitri Cantemir, from 1121-2/1710 to 1122-3/1711 resident in this town as prince of Moldavia, stated that the seat of government had been transferred to Yas̲h̲ by Stephen the Great (838 or 9-909 or 10/1435-1504; in reality this was do…

S̲h̲āh Sulṭān

(1,387 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, a name used for several princesses of the Ottoman dynasty, among others for a daughter of Bāyezīd II (M. Çağatay Uluçay, Padişahlarin kadinlari ve kizlan , Ankara 1980, 29) and for a daughter of Muṣṭafā III ( ibid., 10), who endowed a mosque and zāwiye complex in Eyüp, Istanbul, still extant today. Here we will deal with two 10th/16th century princesses bearing This name. 1. S̲h̲āh Sulṭān, also known as S̲h̲āhī Sulṭān or Dewlets̲h̲āhī, daughter of Selīm I, was married before 929/1523 to Lüṭfī Pas̲h̲a, with whom she may have spent some time in Epirus. From T…


(1,111 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, a town of western Anatolia, in modern Turkey Uşak (lat. 38° 42ʹ N., long. 29° 25ʹ E., altitude 907 m/2,976 feet). 1. History. In Antiquity, the town came within the empire of the Hittites, and the ruins of classical Flaviopolis are nearby. In the 8th/14th century it came within the beylik of the Germiyān-Og̲h̲ullari̊ [ q.v.]. The only extant waḳfiyye of this period, dated ¶ 721/1321, concerns the foundation of a zāwiye there by Yaʿḳūb I (Mustafa Çetin Varlik, Germiyan-oğullari tarihi (1300-1429 Ankara 1974, 43, 107), and the still-extant Ulu Cami is u…
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