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ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Khwārazmī

(1,155 words)

Author(s): Gholami, Yadollah | Umar, Suheyl
ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Khwārazmī, Mawlānā Niẓām al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Khwārazmī Anīsī, a 9th/15th century calligrapher, of the nastaʿlīq style. He is said to have been born and brought up in Shīrāz, Persia. He was the son of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Khwārazmī and brother of ʿAbd al-Karīm Khwārazmī (q.v.). It was when he met Yaʿqūb Āq-qūyūnlū (r. 883–896/1478–1491) that his fame became widespread. The epi-¶ thet ‘Anīsī’ (‘close, intimate companion’), which ʿAbd al-Raḥīm used as a pen name ( takhalluṣ), was conferred on him by Yaʿqūb as a token of affection and appreciation of their close as…

ʿAbd Allāh Shīrāzī

(800 words)

Author(s): Gholami, Yadollah | Negahban, Farzin
ʿAbd Allāh Shīrāzī was a Ṣafawid painter. Extant sources suggest that ʿAbd Allāh was connected to Abū al-Fatḥ Ibrāhīm b. Bahrām, ḥākim (governor) of Mashhad and nāẓir (supervisor) of the Library of Imam Riḍā's shrine, from the time of the latter's appointment in 964/1557 until his assassination twenty years later on 6 Dhū al-Ḥijja 984/24 February 1577 at Qazwīn (Qummī, 148; Soucek, 205). ʿAbd Allāh, who was apparently an intimate companion of Sulṭān Ibrāhīm Mīrzā, joined the atelier of the Ṣafawid king Ismāʿīl II after ¶ Ibrāhīm Mīrzā's death. Ismāʿīl died on 15 Ramaḍān 985/26 No…

ʿAbd al-Karīm Khwārazmī

(703 words)

Author(s): Gholami, Yadollah | Negahban, Farzin
ʿAbd al-Karīm Khwārazmī, a 9th/15th-century Persian poet and calligrapher. He was the son of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (q.v.) and the brother of ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Khwārazmī (q.v.), both renowned calligraphers (ʿAlī Shīr, 301; Quṭb al-Dīn Muḥammad, 83). He is believed to have been born in Shīrāz, where he spent most of his life. If he did officially enter the court of Yaʿqūb Āq-qūyūnlū (r. 883–896/1478–1491) and receive patronage, as implied by the fact that he occasionally used the epithet ‘al-Yaʿqūbī’, this means that ʿAbd al-Karīm…

Aḥmad b. Mūsā b. Jaʿfar

(3,567 words)

Author(s): Gholami, Yadollah | Qasemi, Jawad
Aḥmad b. Mūsā b. Jaʿfar (d. ca. 203/818), was one of the sons of Imam Mūsā b. Jaʿfar al-Kāẓim, and was known as ‘Sayyid al-Sādāt’ and ‘Shāh Chirāgh’. There is very little biographical information about him, and the historical sources only refer to parts of his life. Regarding Aḥmad’s relationship with his father, the sources show that Mūsā b. Jaʿfar al-Kāẓim treated him with great respect and gave him a piece of land, apparently called ‘Yasīra’. It is also known that he was praised for his generosity, courage and piety (see al-Shaykh al-Mufīd, 303; al-Bayhaqī, fol. 87a). As regards his part…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Khwārazmī

(629 words)

Author(s): Gholami, Yadollah | Lahouti, Hassan
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Khwārazmī, a calligrapher specialising in nastaʿlīq, living in the mid- to late 9th/15th century, who occasionally called himself ʿImād al-Dīn. It ¶ is probable that he worked at the courts of Jahānshāh Qarā-qūyūnlū and his son, Pīr Būdāq, and when the latter lived in Baghdad, the artist was one of his companions (Bayānī, 2/379; Soucek, 147; Sakisian, 35). Later, Khwārazmī went to the court of Yaʿqūb Beg Āq-qūyūnlū, and enjoyed his patronage (see ʿĀlī Afandī, 56; Sakisian, 34–35). He was a contemporary of the famous nastaʿlīq calligraphers, Sulṭān-ʿAlī Mashhadī, and…

Abū Naṣr Pārsā (mausoleum)

(671 words)

Author(s): Gholami, Yadollah | Negahban, Farzin
Abū Naṣr Pārsā, mausoleum ( maqbara). The tomb of Abū Naṣr Pārsā is a structure in Balkh belonging to the 10th/16th century, with the tomb of Khwājah Abū Naṣr situated in front of it. Previously there were other structures surrounding it. The inscriptions on the graves in the vicinity illustrate that their occupants were individuals who were close to Abū Naṣr when alive. The inscription with Abū Naṣr's name has been destroyed (Khwāndamīr, 2/1; Pugachenkova, 54; Golombek and Wilber, 1/295–296). In 995/587, ʿAbd al-Muʾmin Shaybānī founded a building that is known toda…

Bābā Qāsim, Mausoleum

(1,090 words)

Author(s): Gholami, Yadollah | Melvin-Koushki, Matthew
Bābā Qāsim, Mausoleum. The mausoleum of Bābā Qāsim al-Iṣfahānī, a prominent mystic of the 8th/14th century, is located in the Shahshahān area of Iṣfahān (see Fig. 2). According to an inscription over the entrance, and several within the mausoleum, the building was erected in 741/1340 by Sulaymān b. Abī al-Ḥasan b. Ṭālūt Dāmghānī, one of Bābā Qāsim’s disciples and an official of the late Īlkhānid and post-Īlkhānid era (see Iṣfahānī, 73; Rafīʿī, 785–786; Godard, ‘Le tombeau de Bābā Ḳāsem et la Madrasa Imāmī’, 165, ‘Le tombeau’, 38). The architectural style of the Bābā Qāsim mausoleu…


(10,342 words)

Author(s): Kasa’i, Nurollah | Umar, Suheyl | Gholami, Yadollah
Al-Azhar, or al-Jāmiʿ al-Azhar, dating from the Fāṭimid era, is the oldest extant educational-religious establishment in Egypt. It was built within a year of the founding of the city of Cairo. After the passage of a thousand years during which many political, social and cultural changes have taken place, the institution is still active in the fields of education and learning, and is considered one of the most vibrant and important Islamic universities in the world. Part 1: History The Fāṭimid Era Al-Azhar was founded as the congregational mosque by Jawhar al-Ṣiqillī (d. 381/9…

ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib

(66,105 words)

Author(s): Manouchehri, Faramarz Haj | Melvin-Koushki, Matthew | Shah-Kazemi, Reza | Bahramian, Ali | Pakatchi, Ahmad | Et al.
ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, first cousin of the Prophet Muḥammad; first of the Imams for all Shiʿi Muslims—the very term Shīʿa being derived from the designation Shīʿat ʿAlī, ‘the supporters of ʿAlī’; fourth and last of the ‘rightly-guided caliphs’ ( al-khulafāʾ al-rāshidūn); son-in-law of the Prophet through marriage to Fāṭima; father of the Prophet’s only surviving grandsons, al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn, and thus forebear of all the descendants of the Prophet, referred to as the spiritual ‘nobility’ (the shurafāʾ, sing. sharīf; or sādāt, sing. sayyid, lit. ‘lord’) of the Muslim community.…