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Divination/Manticism

(2,012 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Greco-Roman Antiquity I. Religious Studies 1. Terms and definition Divination derives from Lat. divinare, “to ascertain the divine will.” Manticism, Gk μαντική (sc. τέχνη)/ mantikḗ (sc. téchnē), is “(the art of) indicating the future”; the term derives from a root that expresses “spiritual effort”; in antiquity, at least after Plato ( Phaidr. 244c), owing to the dominance of ecstatic divination, the word was associated with “mania” (μανία/ manía) (Mania). Divination is …

Incubation

(469 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz
[German Version] Incubation (Lat. incubare, Gk enkatheúdein, enkoimán, “to sleep in a sanctuary”) is the ritual practice of sleeping in a sanctuary for the purpose of experiencing a divine epiphany in one's dreams and of receiving help. The practice was especially cultivated in the healing sanctuaries of Asclepius, although it is also attested in other cults in which healing (Amphiaraos in Oropus, Isis and other gods in Kanopos-Menouthis in the Nile Delta) or dream oracles were sought. Incubation is at…

Gallio, Junius Annaeus

(190 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz
[German Version] Gallio, Junius Annaeus, eldest son of the rhetor Lucius Annaeus Seneca and the brother of the philosopher, poet and statesman Lucius Annaeus Seneca. He was adopted by the rhetor Lucius Iunius Gallio and followed the typical senatorial track, becoming governor (proconsul) of Achaia under Claudius (51/52 ce) and consul suffectus in 56 ce. He survived his brother, whom Nero forced to commit suicide in the wake of the Piso conspiracy of 65 ce, but also seems to have been compelled to take his own life at a later point in time (Tacitus, Annales XV, 73; Dio Cassius, LXII, 25).…

Religionsgeschichte

(8,353 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz
Graf, Fritz [English version] A. Terminologie (RWG) Es existiert weder ein griech. noch ein lat. Begriff, welcher dem neuzeitlichen “Religion” in seiner wiss. Bed. - entweder zur Bezeichnung eines bestimmten kulturellen Subsystems (“Religion der Azteken”) oder zur Bezeichung einer anthropologischen Konstante Religion (R.) - vollständig entspricht; dieser ist vielmehr das Resultat von Aufklärung und ethnologischen Entdeckungen und geht auf die frühe Neuzeit zurück. Antike Begrifflichkeit konzentriert sich erst einmal auf Einzelbereiche: griech. thrēskeía, “Verehrung…

Discipline of the Secret

(1,180 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz | Wischmeyer, Wolfgang
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Christian Secrecy I. Religious Studies Discipline of the Secret ( disciplina arcani) is a modern expression coined in the context of post-Reformation controversial theology (first used by J. Daillé, De usu patrum ad ea definienda capita, Geneva, 1686). It refers to the ancient Christian demand, made especially in the 4th and early 5th centuries, that central parts of the ritual (baptism and Eucharist) and the …

Anna Perenna

(227 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] A festival was held in her honour at the Ides of March in her grove (Martial. 4,64; 16) at the first milestone of the Via Flaminia near the Tiber, which is characterized by a sacrifice for a good year ut commode liceat annare perennareque (Macrob. Sat. 1,12,6) and by both sexes drinking wine together in tents and grass huts (Ov. Fast. 3,523-540); the date, rites and portentous character indicate a festival of dissolution associated with the beginning of a new year. The origin and character of the goddess were just as uncle…

Iacchus

(322 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἴακχος; Íakchos). One of the deities of the Mysteries of  Eleusis [1]. I. is the personification of the ecstatic cultic cry ( íakchos, onomatopoetic) by the participants in the Mysteries during their procession from Athens to the Eleusinian sanctuary where they underwent initiation into the mysteries (Hdt. 8,65; Aristoph. Ran. 316-353). His image, which was kept in a temple of Demeter, Kore and I. by the Pompeion at the Sacred Gate (Paus. 1,2,4, probably identical with the Iaccheion Plut. Aristides 27,4), was carried ahead of this procession by the iakchagōgós (‘lead…

Hyacinthides

(203 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ὑακινθίδες; Hyakinthídes). Name of a group of Athenian goddesses, in whose honour a yearly sacrificial festival with maiden dances was held, and who received wineless offerings prior to an army's march into battle. The mythical reason for these rites can be found in the legend that the H. had been sacrificed by  Erechtheus in order to fend off an invasion. Their names and number vary; certain names indicate a relationship to Artemis (who in Sparta received sacrifices prior to a ba…

Hierodouloi

(340 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (ἱερόδουλοι; hieródouloi, ἱεροὶ δοῦλοι; hieroì doûloi). Literally, ‘temple slaves’; in ancient life they were, first, persons who (like land) were the property of a temple but not cultic personnel, second, persons who were donated as slaves (and often as cultic personnel) to the temple, and third, slaves who achieved partial or complete freedom through transfer to a deity (sacred  manumission). In modern terminology the holy prostitutes stand in the foreground ( Prostitution), as attes…

Astyoche

(170 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀστυόχη; Astyóchē). Common mythic-epic woman's name, which is easily adapted to the hexameter, for instance: [German version] [1] Sister of  Agamemnon and Menelaus Sister of  Agamemnon and Menelaus, wife of the Phocian Strophius, who was the father of Pylades (Hyg. Fab. 117). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Daughter of  Laomedon Daughter of  Laomedon (Apollod. 3,146), wife of Telephus, mother of Eurypylus, whom she sent to help Priam (Apollod. Ep. 5,12). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [3] Daughter of an Actor Daughter of an  Actor, through Ares mo…

Argea

(153 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀργεία [ Argeía], Argia). Appears as the ‘wife of Argus’ in a supporting role in various myths concerning Argus. [German version] [1] Daughter of Oceanus Daughter of Oceanus, sister and wife of Inachus, mother of the early Argive king Phoroneus and Io (Hyg. Fab. 143). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Older daughter of Adrastus and Amphithea Older daughter of Adrastus and Amphithea, wife of Polynices (Hyg. Fab. 69,5). She participated in Oedipus' burial (Hes. fr. 192) and helped Antigone to guard the dead Polynices, but fled before Creon…

Basilisk

(219 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Greek Βασιλίσκος; Basilískos), ‘the king of the snakes’, fabulous snake of the Libyan desert, documented from Hellenistic times; detailed descriptions are given by Pliny (HN 8,78f.) and Isidore (12,4,6f.). Recognizable by a white spot on its head, ‘like a diadem’ (Pliny) and by its unsnakelike form of forward motion, the B. kills by its breath and smell: wherever it passes, it burns bushes and grass and breaks stones (Plin.). It can kill humans also by its mere gaze (Plin. HN 29,66…

Anna

(87 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Sister of  Dido; she plays an important narrative role especially in Verg. Aen. 4 [1]. Her earlier history is not clear: according to Varro it was not Dido, but rather A. who immolated herself for love of Aeneas (Serv. auct. Verg. Aen. 4,682; Serv. Verg. Aen. 5,2). Ovid at the latest identifies her with the goddess  Anna Perenna; the possibly Semitic name of Dido's sister was associated by popular etymology with annus, ‘year’. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography 1 R. Heinze, Vergils ep. Technik, 1915, 126-130.

Kataibates

(158 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Καταιβάτης/ Kataibátēs, ‘he who descends’). Epiclesis of Zeus and of Hermes. For Zeus the epiclesis is epigraphically documented numerous times and is applied to the god who manifests himself through the lightning strike (‘who [in lightning] descends’). The piece of ground hit by lightning ( enēlýsion, Poll. 9, cf. the Roman fulmen condere) cannot be walked on ( ábaton), is consecrated to Zeus and is marked by a monument or an altar. The fact that the Athenians consecrated the location where Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes dismounted from his…

Leukophryene

(148 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Λευκοφρυήνη; Leukophryḗnē). Epiclesis of Artemis of Magnesia on the Maeander, the chief goddess of the city; after an epiphany in the mid 2nd cent. BC, an impressive temple was built for her (Vitr. De arch. 3,2,6), a new cult statue was solemnly erected [1], a trans-regional festival with agon was inaugurated [2] and the sanctuary was given the right to give asylum (Tac. Ann. 3,62,1). At the same time L. is the name of the heroine (thus derived), who (as is often the case) is bur…

Alkyoneus

(225 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton)
(Ἀλκυονεύς). [English version] [1] ältester Gigant Gigant. Er gilt als der älteste (Lyr. adesp. 985 PGM), ist in Pallene (l.c.) beheimatet und stirbt nicht, solange er den Heimatboden berührt. In der Gigantomachie muß Herakles ihn auf Anraten Athenas deswegen fortschleifen, um ihn töten zu können (Apollod. 1,35 f.). Auf dem pergamenischen Altarfries schleift Athena selber den geflügelten A. an den Haaren fort. Er soll unter dem Vesuv begraben sein (Claud. rapt. Pros. 3,185); die Neapolitaner zeigten seine Gebeine (Philostr. heroicus 9,15). In den frühen Zeugnissen ist er Räu…

Antiphos

(89 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton)
(Ἄντιφος). Name einer Reihe homer. Helden auf troischer (Il. 2,864; 12,191) wie auf griech. Seite (Il. 2,678; 17,68). Etwas Farbe haben allein [English version] [1] Sohn von Priamos und Hekabe der Sohn von Priamos und Hekabe. Achilleus nimmt ihn auf dem Ida gefangen, Priamos löst ihn wieder aus, von Agammemnon wird A. schließlich im Kampf getötet (Il. 11,101, vgl. 4,489). Graf, Fritz (Princeton) [English version] [2] Sohn des Ithakesiers Aigyptos Sohn des Ithakesiers Aigyptos, Bruder des Freiers Eurynomos, den Polyphem tötete (Od. 2,15- 22). Graf, Fritz (Princeton)

Amythaon

(106 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton)
[English version] (Ἀμυθάων). Sohn des Kretheus und der Tyro in Iolkos, Bruder von Phereus und Aison, Halbbruder der Poseidonsöhne Neleus und Pelias (Hom. Od. 11,235-259; Hes. fr. 38). Er siedelt in Pylos, das Neleus gegründet hat, und hat hier die Söhne Melampus und Bias (Diod. 4,68,3; Apollod. 1,93; 96). Mit seinen Verwandten erscheint er in Iolkos, um von Pelias für Iason dessen Erbe zu fordern; er ist unter den Argonauten (Pind. P. 4,126). Ein Teil von Elis heißt nach ihm Amythaonia; vor Pelias und Neleus erneuert er die olympischen Spiele (Paus. 5,8,2). Graf, Fritz (Princeton) Bibliog…

Agaue

(118 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton)
[English version] (Ἀγαύη). Tochter des Kadmos und der Harmonia, Gemahlin des Echion, Mutter des Pentheus. Sie beschimpft ihre Schwester Semele, die von Zeus den Dionysos empfangen hat und im Blitz verbrannte. Dionysos rächt sich an A., indem er sie und ihre Schwestern dazu bringt, Pentheus, der sich Dionysos widersetzt, im Wahnsinn zu zerreissen. Triumphierend trägt A. das Haupt ihres Sohnes, den sie für ein wildes Tier gehalten hat, nach Hause. Schon bei Aischylos, erst recht in Eur. Bacchae ist A. eine tragische Figur (vgl. auch Ov. met. 3,701 ff.). Die künstlerische Ü…

Caeculus

(159 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton)
[English version] Mythischer Gründer von Praeneste (Cato orig. 59 Peter; Verg. Aen. 7,678-81; Serv. Aen. 7,678; Solin. 2,9, nach libri Praenestini; Festus s.v.). Gezeugt durch einen Funken vom Herd und deswegen Sohn des Vulcanus (oder, in euhemeristischer Form, nach Cato in einem Herd gefunden), wird er ausgesetzt und von den Brüdern seiner Mutter aufgezogen. Er sammelt Hirten um sich und gründet mit ihnen die Stadt. Der Mythos verbindet geläufige Motive (Geburt aus dem Herd wie Tarquinius Priscus, Aussetzung [1], …
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