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Provisions Are Running Out (RS 94.2383 + Rs 94.2619) (3.45MM)

(274 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Between Non-Royal Correspondents (39) Provisions Are Running Out (RS 94.2383 + Rs 94.2619) (3.45MM) 1 Address and Greeting (lines 1–5) To ʾUrtēnu, my brother, say: Message of ʿUṯtaya, your sister. May the gods keep you well, may they guard you. The Problem ( lines 6–13) (It has been) three days now that there is no food in your house and for [… someone] struck and provisions CARRY (to) the house of the king. Twice now (someone) has taken …

From Büyükkale, Building E (3.40)

(317 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Accounts; Archive Shelf Lists From Büyükkale, Building E (3.40) (iii.2–3) “When they give [a festival (?)] in Šapinuwa to [the Stormgod (?)] in the third year.” ( iii.4) “When [they draw] from the road the Mother goddesses of the (king’s?) body.” ( iii.5–6) “When they celebrate the Spring Festival in Kulella for the Stormgod of Kul[ella].” ( iii.7–9) The word of Kantuzzi[li, Chief of the] priests (and) Prince: “When they pour […], and they call a little […], how they put down [……

Nur-Adad (2.99B)

(159 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian clay cone records Nur-Adad’s construction of Enki’s abzu temple at Eridu. Nur-Adad (2.99B) ( 1–3) [For] the god En[ki], lord of Eridu, [his] lord, ( 4–8) Nur-[Adad], mighty man, provider of Ur, king of Larsa, subduer of the foreign land for the god Utu, ( 9–16) when he had restored Ur and Larsa, had resettled their scattered people in their residence, their captive people … the foundation tru[ly …

Nabonidus (2.123)

(33 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary The Sippar Cylinder of Nabonidus Nabonidus’ Rebuilding of E-lugal-galga-sisa, The Ziggurat of Ur Nabonidus (2.123)

Two Servants to their Master (RS 29.093) (3.45HH)

(1,007 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Between Non-Royal Correspondents (34) Two Servants to their Master (RS 29.093) (3.45HH) 1 Subject: 1 Sam 20:6; Neh 13:6; Neh 3:34; 1 Chr 11:8 Address (lines 1–5) To Yadurma, our master, say: Message of Pinḥaṯu and Yarmîhaddu, your servants.2 Greetings and Prostration Formula ( lines 5–10) May it be well with our master. May the gods guard you, may they keep you well. At the feet of our master twice seven times (from) afar we fall.3 The Problem with Binu-ʿAyāna ( lines…

The King of Tyre to the King of Ugarit in the Matter of Storm-Damaged Ships (RS 18.031) (3.45H)

(1,378 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Incoming Correspondence From Other Courts (8) The King of Tyre to the King of Ugarit in the Matter of Storm-Damaged Ships (RS 18.031) (3.45H) 1 Subject: 2 Sam 5:11; 1 Kgs 5:15–25; 9:10–14, 26–27; 10:11, 22; 1 Kgs 18:45; Ezek 13:11, 13; Jon 1:4; Deut 22:9; Gen 12:5; Judg 1:31; 2 Sam 13:33; 19:20; 42:25 Address (lines 1–3) To the king of Ugarit, my brother, say: Message of the king of Tyre, your brother.2  r  Greetings ( lines 4–5) May it be well with you. May the gods guard…

Land Donation by the King (3.108)

(176 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Property Conveyances from Ugarit Land Donation by the King (3.108) From the present day on, Niqmaddu,1 son of Ammistamru, king of Ugarit2 has taken the house of Yatarmu, son of Sharupshu, and the fields of Ṣariru with all that they have, and has given them to Bin-ilu, Yaṣiru, and Abi-irshi,3 and their sons forever. In future nobody shall take (it) from their hands. It is a grant forever. The seal of Niqmaddu, son of Ammistamru, king of Ugarit. First the king gave them and, secondly, 200…

Larsa Dynasty (2.LARSA)

(92 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary The city of Larsa (modern Sinkara) struggled with Isin for hegemony over the land of Sumer and Akkad in early Old Babylonian times. The site has been dug by a series of French expeditions in 1933–34 and 1967 (directed by A. Parrot), 1969–70 (directed by J.-Cl. Margueron) and since 1970 (directed by J.-L. Huot). The names of fourteen kings of the Larsa dynasty are known; they reigned from ca. 2025–1763 bce. Larsa Dy…

The King to the Queen-Mother In the Matter of the Amurrite Princess (RS 34.124) (3.45D)

(1,486 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Correspondence Between Members of the Royal Family (4) The King to the Queen-Mother1 In the Matter of the Amurrite Princess (RS 34.124) (3.45D) 2 Subject: 1 Kgs 2:19; Ps 51:19; 147:3; 19:12; 1 Kgs 11:1–3; 1 Kgs 10:2, 10; 1 Sam 10:1; 16:1, 13; 1 Kgs 1:39; 2 Kgs 9:1–3, 6; Pss 23:5; 133:2; Exod 20:5–6 Address (lines 1–3) [To the queen, my mother, say: Message of the] k[ing, your son.] Prostration and Greeting Formulae ( line 4–6) At my mother’s feet [I fall]. j With my mother 〈ma…

Isin Dynasty (2.ISIN)

(104 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary Hegemony over the land of Sumer and Akkad eventually passed from Akkad (e) to Ur ( COS COSB.2.138–141) and from Ur to Isin with the collapse of the Ur III state ca. 2004 bce. Isin, the new center of power, was located at modern Ishan Baḥriyat. The site has been excavated since 1973 by an expedition of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under …

The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 12 (HKM 13) (3.24)

(201 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Letters; Middle Hittite Period (ca. 1450–1350 BCE) The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 12 ( HKM 13) (3.24) Thus speaks His Majesty: Say to Kaššū: ( 3) Concerning the capitulation (?) of Maruwa, the ruler of the city of Ḫimmuwa, about which you wrote me: “I have dispatched him (to you).” On a tablet you wrote to me: “I have dispatched him (to you),” but as of now he has not come. Now put him in the charge of an officer, and have him conduct him quickly before My Majesty. ( 13) Otherwise, you will become responsible …

Thutmose III (2.2)

(40 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Egyptian Monumental Inscriptions; Royal Inscriptions; Eighteenth Dynasty Inscriptions Commentary The Annals of Thutmose III The Gebel Barkal Stela of Thutmose III The Armant Stela of Thutmose III Thutmose III (2.2)

Sennacherib (2.119)

(45 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Sennacherib’s First Campaign: Against Merodach-baladan Sennacherib’s Siege of Jerusalem Sennacherib — Lachish Relief Inscription Sennacherib: the “Azekah” Inscription Sennacherib: the Capture and Destruction of Babylon Sennacherib (2.119)

Philistine (2.75)

(391 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Seal and Stamp Inscriptions; Seals and Seal Impressions Commentary The seal of Abd-Ilib son of Shabeath, minister of Mittit son of Zidqa (Philistine; provenience unknown).1 Mittit and his father Zidqa must be Mitinti II and Zidqa, the kings of Ashkelon mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions. Zidqa and his family were exiled to Assyria when Sennacherib conquered Ashkelon in 701 bce, and Mitinti II paid tribute to Esarhaddon in 677 and to Ashurbanipal in 667.2 (Belonging) to Abd-Ilib3so…

Ammonite (2.71)

(400 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Seal and Stamp Inscriptions; Seals and Seal Impressions Commentary Many seals inscribed with the first letters of the alphabet — from four to eight — are regarded as Ammonite; they are probably practice pieces; see Avigad and Sass 1997:366–371; Hestrin and Dayagi-Mendels 1979 ## 127, 129. The seal impression of Milkom-or, minister of Baalyasha (Ammonite).1 This seal was discovered in excavations at Tell el-ʿUmeiri in Jordan. (Belonging) to Milkom-or2“servan-t” (minister) of B…

Land Sale (3.106)

(260 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Property Conveyances from Ugarit Land Sale (3.106) Subject: Gen 41:43 From the present day on, before witnesses, Iliya, son of Siniya, and Padiya, his brother, and his sons sold 4 ( ikû)1 which are among the fields of Ṣaʾu2 for 180 (shekels) of silver3 to Sharelli,4 the queen. (These) 4 ( ikû) fields are bound like the sunny day5 to Sharelli, the queen,6 forever. Witness: Shipiṭ-Baʾal.7 Witness: Shubammu. Witness: Abdi-Milki,8 son of Yakunu. Witness: Anantenu, son of Bin…

The King to Kaššū, Ḫulla and Zulapi In Tapikka (HKM 17) (3.28)

(530 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Letters; Middle Hittite Period (ca. 1450–1350 BCE) The King to Kaššū, Ḫulla and Zulapi In Tapikka ( HKM 17) (3.28) 1 Thus speaks His Majesty: Say to Ḫulla, Kaššū and Zilapi: ( 4) Concerning what you wrote me: “While we were in Ḫattuša, the Kaškaean men heard, and they drove away cattle, and kept the roads under their control.” ( 9) When I sent you and Ḫulla out (last) winter, (the enemies) didn’t hear you. But now, of all things, they did hear you? ( 13) Concerning what you yourselves have now w…

Ibbi-sin (2.142)

(181 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions Commentary Old Babylonian copy on a clay tablet of a royal inscription of neo-Sumerian date originally carved on the sculpture of an exotic animal, perhaps a leopard. Ibbi-sin (2.142) For Nanna, the impetuous bullock of Heaven, the lord who is first-born son of Enlil, his master, Ibbi-Sin, the god of his nation, the mighty king, the king of Ur, the king of the four heavenly quarters — (of) a “dappled dog” of Meluhha (= India?…

Silver Bowl (Brooklyn Museum 54.50.36) (2.51A)

(159 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions; Aramaic Inscriptions Commentary To Hanilat1 Silver Bowl (Brooklyn Museum 54.50.36) (2.51A) Bibliographical References Text: I. Rabinowitz, ‛“Aramaic Inscriptions of the Fifth Century B.C.E. from a North-Arab Shrine in Egypt.”  JNES 15:1–9. ( 1956 ) ’ ,  TAD D15.1. Studies: W. J. Dumbrell, ‛“The Tell el-Maskhuṭa Bowls and the ‘Kingdom’ of Qedar in the Persian Period.”  BASOR 203:33–44. ( 1971 ) ’ , Fitzmyer and Kaufman 1992:B.3.f.12. Notes^ back to text1. Elli…

Lugal-murube Son of Zuzu (2.143)

(387 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Monumental Inscriptions; Votive Inscriptions Commentary Dogs were sacred to Nintinuga, the goddess of healing, perhaps because they were thought to aid recovery by licking wounds. Numerous skeletons of dogs have been found in Isin, her sacred city, where she was worshipped as Nin-Isina, “our lady of Isin,” or as Gula, “the great (goddess).” The following literary text records the fashioning and dedication of the sculpture of a dog to the godd…
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