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The King of Ugarit to the Queen-Mother In the Matter of His Meeting With the Hittite Sovereign (RS 16.379) (3.45F)

(488 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Correspondence Between Members of the Royal Family (6) The King of Ugarit to the Queen-Mother In the Matter of His Meeting With the Hittite Sovereign (RS 16.379) (3.45F) 1 Subject: Num 13:31; Judg 1:1 Address (lines 1–3) To the queen, my mo[ther], say: Message of the king, your son. Prostration and Greeting Formulae ( line 4–7) At my mother’s feet I fall. With my mo[ther] may it be well. May the god[s] guard you, may they keep [you] well. Report of Well-being and Request fo…

Letter II (3.1B)

(1,413 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Egyptian Archival Documents; Letters; Middle Kingdom Letters Letter II (3.1B) Subject: Isa 9:19; Mic 3:3; Gen 16:12 (vo. 5–6) From ka-servant Heqanakht to his household of Sidder Grove.1 ( ro. 1) A son who speaks to his mother, ka-servant Heqanakht to his mother Ipi, and to Hetepet:2 how is your life, soundness, and health? In the blessing of Montu, lord of Thebes.3 To the whole household: how are you and how is your life, soundness, and health? Don’t concern yourselves about me. Look, I am healthy and alive. ( ro. 3) Look, you are li…

Ḥesbân Ostracon A2 (3.85)

(397 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Accounts; Ammonite Ostraca from Ḥesbân Commentary This ostracon, discovered in 1974, is a body sherd from a heavy storage jar. Its maximum dimensions are 8.×.4 cm. It was, however, originally larger than its present version as evidenced by a modern break along its top. The text is a list of goods, written in Ammonite cursive script.1 The ostracon is in the Amman Archaeological Museum, Ḥesbân No. H74.2092.2 It has been dated paleographically to ca. 575 bce.3 Ḥesbân Ostracon A2 (3.85) Subject: N…

Kub 15.1 (CTH 584.1) (3.36)

(1,018 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Accounts; Votive Records Kub 15.1 ( CTH 584.1) (3.36) (i.1–11)1 Ḫebat of the city Uda. Dream of the queen. When …, the queen in the dream vowed to Ḫebat of Uda as follows: “If you, O goddess, my lady, will preserve the life of His Majesty, i.e., you will not allow him to come to harm, I will make for Ḫebat a gold statuette, and I will make for her a gold rosette, and they shall call it ‘Ḫebat’s rosette.’ I will also make a gold toggle pin for your breast, and they shall call it ‘the goddess’s toggle pin.’ ” ( i.12–14) D…

Sethos I (2.4)

(69 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Egyptian Monumental Inscriptions; Royal Inscriptions; Nineteenth Dynasty Inscriptions Commentary Karnak, Campaign from Sile to Pa-Canaan, Year 1 First Beth-Shan Stela, Year 1 Karnak, Campaign to Yenoam and Lebanon (Year 1 or Later) Second Beth-Shan Stela, Year Lost Karnak, Campaign Against the Hittites (Undated) Karnak, Campaign Against the Libyans (Undated) Karnak, Campaign Against Qadesh and Amurru (Undated) Sethos I (2.4)

Hebrew (2.70)

(2,766 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Seal and Stamp Inscriptions; Seals and Seal Impressions Commentary 2.70A. Two bullae of Berechyahu son of Neriyahu the scribe, made by the same seal (Hebrew; provenience unknown).1 These identical inscriptions are written in the Hebrew script of the seventh century bce. This Berechyahu is probably Jeremiah’s secretary “Baruch son of Neriyahu the scribe” (Jer 36:32). Baruch is the hypocoristicon, or nickname, for Berechyahu. The shorter form of Baruch’s patronym, N…

From an Official in Alashia to the King (RS 18.113a+b) (3.45U)

(687 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Between King or Queen and a Non-Royal Personage (21) From an Official in Alashia to the King (RS 18.113a+b) (3.45U) 1 Address (lines 1–3) To the king, [my] l[ord], s[ay]: Message of the Chief of Maʾ[ḫadu, your servant]. Prostration Formula ( lines 4–6) At the feet of my master [ (from) afar], seven times and seven times [do I fall.] Greetings ( lines 6–9) I do pronounce to Baʿlu-Ṣapuni, to Eternal Sun, to ʿAṯtartu, to ʿAnatu, to all the gods of Alashi[a] (…

The Queen to Yarmîhaddu (RS 96.2039) (3.45S)

(859 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Between King or Queen and a Non-Royal Personage (19) The Queen to Yarmîhaddu (RS 96.2039) (3.45S) 1 Subject: Exod 21:1–6; Judg 6:11 Address (lines 1–3) [Me]ssage of the queen: To Yarmîhaddu, my brother, say: Reference to a Preceding Letter in Reference to a Servant Who Had Fled ( lines 4–17) (As for) the (message)-tablet (in which I said) “Your servant whom I took […]; and I, for my part, gave his wife to you; ll and that servant worked on my farm;2  mm but that servant re…

A Scribe Shows Off (RS 16.265) (3.45OO)

(494 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Scribal Exercises (41) A Scribe Shows Off (RS 16.265) (3.45OO) 1 Subject: 111:8; 148:6 Address and Greetings (lines 1–6) [Me]ssage of ʾIṯtēlu to MNN: May the gods guard you, may they keep you well, may they strengthen you, for a thousand days and ten thousand years, through the endless reaches of time.2  kkk  The Request ( lines 7–16) A request I would make of my brother, my friend, and may he grant it to his brother, his friend, (his) friend forever…

Kbo 2.1 (CTH 509) (3.34)

(927 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Accounts; Cult Inventories; City Inventories Kbo 2.1 ( CTH 509) (3.34) Šuruwa (ii.9–20)1 The former state (of the cult in the city Šuruwa): four deities in all — one stela representing the Stormgod of Šuruwa, one stela representing the Sungoddess, one stela of Mt. Auwara, one stela of the spring Šinaraši. (The present state:) one iron bull-statue of one šekan in size (representing the Stormgod of Šuruwa), one silver stela of the Sungoddess, on which rays are depicted in silver, one club with a s…

From Büyükkale, Building A, Rooms 4–5 (3.38)

(480 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Accounts; Archive Shelf Lists From Büyükkale, Building A, Rooms 4–5 (3.38) Subject: 16:14–23; Judg 17:2 (B ii.3–4) [Tablet?: “When] (they perform) for IŠTAR of Mt. Amana the festival of the doves, the festival of lamentation, and the festival of birth (?)”1 ( B ii.5–7) [Tablet ?.] The ritual (lit. word) of Ammiḫatna, Mati and Tulpiya: “[If] they find some sacrilege in a holy temple, this is how they re-consecrate it.”2 ( B ii.8) [Tablet?]: “If the Great King has a fit of anger in Ḫattuša”. a  ( A ii.…

The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 4 (HKM 4) (3.16)

(132 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Letters; Middle Hittite Period (ca. 1450–1350 BCE) The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 4 ( HKM 4) (3.16) Thus speaks His Majesty: Say to Kaššū: Write to me quickly concerning the condition of the vines, the cattle, and the sheep, in that land.1 Bibliographical References Text:  HKM 4. Edition:  HBM 124–127, 304. Notes^ back to text1. This letter reveals the direct concern of the king for viticulture and livestock in the provinces, a fact we would otherwise not have known. It is w…

The King to Kaššū and Zulapi In Tapikka 1 (HKM 15) (3.26)

(98 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Letters; Middle Hittite Period (ca. 1450–1350 BCE) The King to Kaššū and Zulapi In Tapikka 1 ( HKM 15) (3.26) Thus speaks His Majesty: Say to Kaššū and Zilapi: ( 4) As soon as this tablet reaches you, quickly — within three days1 — bring before My Majesty the assembled troops and the chariotry which is with them. Bibliographical References Text:  HKM 15. Edition:  HBM 140f. Notes^ back to text1. Line 11 informs us that Tapikka lay within 3 days’ march of Ḫattuša.

Rim-Sin (2.102B)

(213 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A different Sumerian cone inscription of Rim-Sin commemorates the construction of a temple of Nergal in Ur. Nergal was a deity venerated by Assyrian deportees (especially those from Cuthah) who were re-located in Samaria following the downfall of Israel in 722 bce. Rim-Sin (2.102B) Subject: 2 Kgs 17:30 ( 1–6) For the god Nergal, a supreme lord, who possesses great might, the one with a perfect fea…

ʾUrǵitēṯub (Urḫi-tešub) to the Queen (RS 20.199) (3.45Y)

(310 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Between King or Queen and a Non-Royal Personage (25) ʾUrǵitēṯub (Urḫi-tešub) to the Queen (RS 20.199) (3.45Y) 1 To the queen, my lady, say: [Me]ssage of ʾUrǵitēṯub, your servant. At the feet of my lady (from) afar seven times and seven times do I fall. With my lady may it be well. May the [go]ds guard you, [may they keep] you well. [Her]e [with me], everything is [ver]y well. There with my lady, whatever is well, send word (of that) back to your servant. Notes^ …

Letter III (3.1C)

(719 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Egyptian Archival Documents; Letters; Middle Kingdom Letters Letter III (3.1C) (vo. 3)To Delta-overseer Herunefer.1 ( ro. 1) Funerary-estate worker, ka-servant Heqanakht, who speaks.2 Your condition is like living, a million times. May Harsaphes, lord of Herakleopolis, and all the gods who are (in the sky and on earth) act for you. May Ptah South of His Wall sweeten your heart greatly with life and a (good) old age. May your final honor be with the life force of Harsaphes, lord of Herakleopolis.3 ( ro. 3) Your humble servant4 spe…

Arad 16: A Letter Between Brothers (3.43G)

(330 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Hebrew Letters Arad 16: A Letter Between Brothers (3.43G) Your brother Ḥananyahu (hereby) sends greetings to (you) Elyashib and to your household. I bless you to Yahweh.1 And now, when I leave your house I will send the money,2 eight shekels, to the sons of Geʾalyahu [by] the intermediary of] Azaryahu, as well as the […]3 Notes^ back to text1. Without patronyms, it is impossible to know whether this Ḥananyahu is the same person as the one bearing the same name who is…

Royal Land Grant (3.109)

(223 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Property Conveyances from Ugarit Royal Land Grant (3.109) From the present day on, before Ammistamru, son of Niqmepa, king of Ugarit,1 Kalbiya, son of Kabityanu, has released 6 ikû fields,2 around the fields of the city3 for 520 (shekels) of silver4 to Kurwanu,5 son of Baʾal-azki and to his sons. These fields are granted6 to Kurwanu and to his sons forever. No person shall take away these fields from the hands of Kurwanu, or from the hands of his sons forever. And there is no pilku-service f…

Funerary Inscriptions (2.22)

(27 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Hittite Monumental Inscriptions; Hieroglyphic Inscriptions Commentary Maraş 4 Kululu 4 3. Funerary Inscriptions (2.22)

Love by the Light of the Moon (1.169C)

(1,151 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Canonical Compositions; Divine Focus; Love Poems Commentary This poem1 is a dialogue between Inanna and Dumuzi/Ama-ushumgalanna, who woo each other as a young couple prior to their marriage. The song opens with Inanna’s monologue, in which she tells of her chance meeting with Dumuzi and about Dumuzi holding her hand and embracing her (obverse lines 1–8) when spending the previous day in song and dance. Then a dialogue with Dumuzi develops (obverse lines 9–22): Inan…
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