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Records of Testimony Given In the Trials of Suspected Thieves and Embezzlers of Royal Property (3.HI.B.1)

(399 words)

Author(s): Hoffner, Harry A., Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Courtcases Commentary These texts, called “Gerichtsprotokollen” in German and “Procès” and “documents de procédure” by Laroche in  CTH pp. 45–46, go by the name “depositions” in the CHD. They appear to be written records of testimony given by persons capable of clarifying cases involving the misappropriation of royal property. We do not know whether all these persons were also suspects themselves or whether some were simply associates of th…

Appu and His Two Sons (1.58)

(1,212 words)

Author(s): Hoffner, Harry A., Jr.
Subject: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World; Hittite Canonical Compositions; Divine Focus; Myths Commentary This text has been translated here as an independent story. According to Güterbock (1946), the text is continued in the tale of the Sun God, the Cow, and the Fisherman. Although the extant copies of the Appu story are New Hittite, archaic language indicates an archetype composed in the Old or Middle Hittite period. The story has a moral, which is stated in the proemium. The unnamed deity wh…

Hittite Laws (2.19)

(12,045 words)

Author(s): Hoffner, Harry A., Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Hittite Monumental Inscriptions; “Functional” Inscriptions; Laws Commentary The Hittite laws were first written down in the Old Kingdom (ca. 1650–1500 BCE). They are therefore later than the Sumerian law collections of Ur-Nammu and Lipit-Ishtar and the Akkadian laws of Eshnunna and Hammurabi, but earlier than the Middle Assyrian laws and the laws of the Hebrew Bible. A New Kingdom revision (KBo 6.4), called the Late Parallel Version and abbreviated PT for “Parallel Text,” contains 41 sections numbered w…

The Hittite Conquest of Cyprus: Two Inscriptions of Suppiluliuma II (1.75)

(1,785 words)

Author(s): Hoffner, Harry A., Jr.
Subject: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World; Hittite Canonical Compositions; Royal Focus; Historiography Commentary The present text derives from a single tablet found in the 1961 season of excavations at Boğazköy in the area of the House on the Slope. It was published in cuneiform copy by Heinrich Otten in 1963 in Keilschrifttexte aus Boghazköi, Heft XII, No. 38, and was partially transliterated and translated in the same year by Otten (1963a). The definitive edition was by Hans Güterbock in 1967 (see also Carruba 1968), who cites all anterior literature. The tablet …

Proclamation of Anitta of Kuššar (1.72)

(1,690 words)

Author(s): Hoffner, Harry A., Jr.
Subject: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World; Hittite Canonical Compositions; Royal Focus; Historiography Proclamation of Anitta of Kuššar (1.72) Subject: Deut 13:16; Josh 6:26; 1 Kgs 16:34; Isa 25:2; Ezek 26:14; Ezra 4:12–22; 1 Sam 4–6; Judg 6:1; 13:1; 2 Kgs 18–19; Isa 36–37; Jer 12:7; 21:10; Judg 9:45; Josh 8:19 Reign of Pitḫana of Kuššar §1 ( lines 1–4) (Thus speaks) Anitta, son of Pitḫana, king of Kuššar. Say:1 (Pitḫana) was dear to the Stormgod of the Sky.2 When (Pithana) was dear to the Stormgod of the Sky, the king of Neša3 was …4 to the king of Kuššar (…

The Sun God and the Cow (1.59)

(989 words)

Author(s): Hoffner, Harry A., Jr.
Subject: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World; Hittite Canonical Compositions; Divine Focus; Myths The Sun God and the Cow (1.59) [Güterbock believes that this story is a continuation of Appu and his Two Sons. Beginning of the preserved portion is too broken for connected translation.] The cow thrived and … -ed. The Sun God looked down from the sky, and his desire leaped forward upon the cow. [He became] a young man, came down from the sky, and began to speak to the cow: “Who do you think you are, that you continually graze on o…

The Treaty of Tudḫaliya IV with Kurunta of Tarḫuntašša On the Bronze Tablet Found In Ḫattuša (2.18)

(5,405 words)

Author(s): Hoffner, Harry A., Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Hittite Monumental Inscriptions; “Functional” Inscriptions; Treaties The Treaty of Tudḫaliya IV with Kurunta of Tarḫuntašša On the Bronze Tablet Found In Ḫattuša (2.18) Subject: 1 Sam 18–23; 1 Sam 20; 22:16; 2 Sam 19:23; 1 Kgs 2:42; 1 Kgs 22; Deut 4:2; 13:1; 12:32; Deut 4:26; 30:19; 31:28; Ezek 6:3; 36:1, 4; Micah 6:1–2; Deut 4:2; 13:1; 12:32; Deut 10:2 §1 (i.1–5) The words of the Tabarna, Tudḫaliya, Great King, King of the Land of Ḫatti, Hero, son of Ḫattušili (III), Great King, King of the Lan…

Cult Inventories (3.HI.C.1)

(155 words)

Author(s): Hoffner, Harry A., Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Accounts Commentary Cult Inventories are administrative texts which were designed to keep records for royal use of the temples (both in Hattuša and in the provincial cities), their staff, the cult images found there, and the offerings and festivals held in fall and spring. They exist in several subsets. The first set, exemplified by KBo 2.1 ( CTH 509) and edited by Carter 1962, place their emphasis on the various cities where temples and other cult installations were found, deta…

Votive Records (3.HI.C.2)

(382 words)

Author(s): Hoffner, Harry A., Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Accounts Commentary This category of texts records vows made by members of the royal family in order to secure favors from the gods and goddesses. The earliest example in the corpus dates to the reign of Muwatalli II. But the vast majority of preserved examples date from the reign of his second successor, Ḫattušili III. The most frequent person making these vows is Ḫattušili’s famous consort, Queen Puduḫepa. The texts ofte…

Middle Hittite Period (ca. 1450–1350 BCE) (3.HI.A.1)

(147 words)

Author(s): Hoffner, Harry A., Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Letters Commentary Maşat was a provincial center situated some 30 miles due east of Ḫattuša. The letters found there date to the Middle Hittite Period (ca. 1450–1350 bce). Their background is formed by the conflict between the Hittite rulers in Ḫattuša and the Kaška of northern Anatolia (COSB.3.13, note 1). 1. Middle Hittite Period (ca. 1450–1350 BCE) Notes^ back to text1. The “enemy” referred to anonymously in these letters found at Maşat is thought to have been the non-seden…

Crossing of the Taurus (1.73)

(773 words)

Author(s): Hoffner, Harry A., Jr.
Subject: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World; Hittite Canonical Compositions; Royal Focus; Historiography Crossing of the Taurus (1.73) Subject: Num 16:15; 1 Sam 12:3; Gen 27:40; Lev 26:13; Deut 28:48; 1 Kgs 12:4–14; Isa 14:25; Jer 27:8; Jer 5:22; Deut 33:17; Pss 22:22; 92:11 §1 Thus (says) Puḫanu, the servant of Šarmaššu […] A person to him […] is dressed in a colorful tunic/garment. On his head a basket1 has been placed. He holds his bow (variant: a bow). He has called for help, (saying:) “What have I done? What?” §2 “I haven’t taken anything from anyone. I haven’t t…

Letter From Queen Naptera of Egypt to Queen Puduḫepa of Ḫatti (3.30)

(399 words)

Author(s): Hoffner, Harry A., Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Letters; Later New Kingdom (Ḫattušili III TO Suppiluliuma II) (ca. 1250–1180 BCE) Letter From Queen Naptera of Egypt to Queen Puduḫepa of Ḫatti (3.30) §1 Thus says Naptera, Great Queen of Egypt: Say to Puduhepa, Great Queen of Hatti, my sister: §2 It is well with me, your sister. It is also well with my land. §3 May it be well with you, my sister. May it also be well with your land. I have learned that you, my sister, wrote inquiring about my health, and that you wrote inquiring …

The Queen of Kanesh and the Tale of Zalpa (1.71)

(1,309 words)

Author(s): Hoffner, Harry A., Jr.
Subject: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World; Hittite Canonical Compositions; Royal Focus; Epic The Queen of Kanesh and the Tale of Zalpa (1.71) Subject: Gen 25:22–23; Gen 30:11; Exod 2; Judg 11; 2 Sam 13–19 The Queen of Kanesh The Queen of Kanesh in the course of a single year gave birth to thirty sons. She said: “What a multitude (?)1  a I have begotten!” She filled2 (the interstices of) baskets with grease,3 put her sons in them, and set them into the river.4  b The river carried them down to the sea,5 to the land of Zalpuwa.6 The gods recovered the children from the sea…

Deeds of Suppiluliuma (1.74)

(6,788 words)

Author(s): Hoffner, Harry A., Jr.
Subject: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World; Hittite Canonical Compositions; Royal Focus; Historiography Commentary Among the Hittite kings Šuppiluliuma I was the greatest conqueror. To him was due the destruction of the great and powerful rival kingdom of Mitanni and the eastward expansion of the Hittite state into North Syria during the first half of the 14th Century bce. The story of his reign has often been told. Among the more recent attempts Güterbock 1960, Kitchen 1962, Bryce 1989, and Kempinski 1993 may be named. Letters from Šup…