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Zölibat

(1,276 words)

Author(s): Holzem, Andreas
1. Begriff und Traditionen Der Z. (von lat. caelebs, »unvermählt«, »ehelos«) ist ein – nicht an das Christentum gebundenes – Phänomen der Religionsgeschichte und bezeichnet die (eventuell temporäre) Enthaltsamkeit von Sexualität bzw. die dauernde Ehelosigkeit. Die Z.-Forderung vieler antiker Kulte folgte der Idee der »kultischen Reinheit«: Sexualität wirke (wie Blut und Krankheit) rituell verunreinigend und mache den Kontakt mit den Göttern wirkungslos oder gefährlich. Nur »reine« Opfer (sowie entsprechende Reinigungsriten) bewirkten demn…

Celibacy

(1,386 words)

Author(s): Holzem, Andreas
1. Concept and traditions Celibacy (from Lat. caelebs, “unwed,” “not married”) is a phenomenon of the history of religion, not confined to Christianity, meaning (in some cases temporary) abstinence from sexuality or a permanent unmarried state. The call to celibacy in many ancient cults followed the notion of “cultic purity”: Sexuality (like blood and sickness) had the effect of causing ritual impurity and rendered contact with the gods ineffective or dangerous. Only “pure” offerings (and correspondi…
Date: 2017-02-14

Rottenburg

(381 words)

Author(s): Holzem, Andreas
[English Version] (-Stuttgart, seit 1978), Bistum, errichtet 1821/1827 im Gefolge von Säkularisation, Mediatisierung und Entstehung des Königreichs Württemberg, Suffragan des Erzbistums Freiburg. Die neu-württembergischen kath. Gebiete der ehem. Diöz. Konstanz, Worms, Augsburg, Würzburg und Speyer wurden zunächst 1812 im Generalvikariat Ellwangen (mit kath. Landesuniversität) zusammengefaßt; 1817 wurden Generalvikariat und Priesterseminar nach R. transferiert, die kath. Universität als Kath.-theol. F…

Broglie, Auguste-Théodore-Paul de

(250 words)

Author(s): Holzem, Andreas
[German Version] (Jun 18, 1834, Auteuil – May 11, 1895, Paris; murdered by someone with mental health problems). The son of the liberal minister Victor de Broglie and grandson of Madame de Staël, Broglie received a strict Catholic upbringing. After a career in the Navy, in 1867 he was demobilized and entered the St. Sulpice seminary, becoming priested in 1870.…

Linsenmann, Franz Xaver (von)

(242 words)

Author(s): Holzem, Andreas
[German Version] (Nov 28, 1835, Rottweil – Sep 21, 1898, Lauterbach, Württemberg), 1867 associate professor, 1872–1889 professor of moral and pastoral theology in Tübingen, 1889 cathedral canon, died in 1898 as the preconized bishop of Rottenburg. Opposed to the legalism of the Neoscholastic and nominalistic justification of law, Linsenmann developed a moral theology and social ethics starting from the conscience of the subject. He believed that free morality rests on the God-given ordo of the world and on the rationality of reality. In contrast to the “privileged c…

Rottenburg, Bishopric

(435 words)

Author(s): Holzem, Andreas
[German Version] (Rottenburg-Stuttgart since 1978), established in 1821/1827 followed secularization, mediatization, and the establishment of the kingdom of Württemberg. The bishopric is suffragan to the archdiocese of Freiburg. The new Württemberg Catholic territories of the former dioceses of Constance, Worms, Augsburg, Würzburg, and Speyer combined in 1812 to form the vicariate general of Ellwangen (with a Catholic territorial university). In 1817 the vicariate general and its seminary were tra…

Geissel, Johannes von

(245 words)

Author(s): Holzem, Andreas
[German Version] (Feb 5, 1796, Gimmeldingen – Sep 8, 1864, Cologne). After ordination to the priesthood in 1818, Geissel was appointed to teach religion in ¶ the Speyer Gymnasium in 1819. In 1822 he became a canon of the cathedral, in 1837 bishop of Speyer, in 1842 coadjutor of the archbishop C.A. v. Droste zu Vischering, and in 1845 archbishop of Cologne. In 1848 he was a delegate to the Prussian national assembly. Trained in the scholastic and anti-rationalist seminary at Mainz (B. Liebermann), as a leading Ultramontan…

Günther, Anton

(179 words)

Author(s): Holzem, Andreas
[German Version] (Nov 17, 1783, Lindenau – Feb 24, 1863, Vienna) was ordained priest in 1821, was novice in the Society of Jesus (SJ) from 1822 to 1824, and became a private scholar in 1824 (philosophy, theology). In deliberate contrast to Ultramontane Neo-Scholasticism, Günther grounded Catholic theology in meeting the critical challenge of German Idealism (I. Kant, J.G. Fichte, G.W.F. Hegel) by adopting an approach based on subjectivity theory. Denounced in Rome in 1852 and condemned in 1857, hi…

Staudenmaier, Franz Anton

(369 words)

Author(s): Holzem, Andreas
[German Version] (Sep 11, 1800, Donzdorf, Württemberg – Jan 19, 1856, Freiburg im Breisgau). Ordained to the priesthood in 1827, in 1828 he was appointed lecturer at Tübingen and in 1830 professor of dogmatics at Gießen; in 1837 he took the same position in Freiburg, where he was also appointed canon. Staudenmaier, who studied with Johann Sebastian Drey (1777–1853), J.B. Hirscher, and J.A. Möhler in Tübingen, took issue with F.D.E. Schleiermacher, who, he argued, no longer based religion on the tr…

Staudenmaier

(340 words)

Author(s): Holzem, Andreas
[English Version] Staudenmaier, Franz Anton (11.9.1800 Donzdorf, Württemberg – 19.1.1856 Freiburg i. Br.), 1827 Priester, 1828 Repetent in Tübingen, 1830 Prof. für Dogmatik in Gießen, 1837 in Freiburg i. Br., 1843 Domkapitular ebd. S., Schüler Johann Sebastian Dreys (1777–1853), J.B. Hirschers und J.A. Möhlers in Tübingen, setzte sich krit. mit F. Schleiermacher auseinander, der Rel. nicht mehr in der Christuswahrheit und der Kirche, sondern im Gefühl fundiere, und hielt gegen G.W. F. Hegel an der P…

Traditionalism

(1,399 words)

Author(s): Holzem, Andreas | Hilberath, Bernd Jochen | Slenczka, Notger
[German Version] I. Catholicism 1. History. Traditionalism in the broader sense does not correlate clearly with Christianity or any denomination. A tendency to invest long-standing tradition as a whole or particular authorities within a body of religious tradition with special dignity and binding force appears primarily in the context of attempts to deal with acute crises of belief and practice by maintaining a firm hold on the past. Catholic traditionalism in the narrower sense was therefore a 19th-…

Traditionalismus

(1,265 words)

Author(s): Holzem, Andreas | Hilberath, Bernd Jochen | Slenczka, Notger
[English Version] I. Katholisch 1.Historisch. T. in einem weiteren Sinne läßt sich weder dem Christentum noch einer seiner Konfessionen eindeutig zuordnen. Die Haltung, dem Überkommenen insg. oder bestimmten Autoritäten des rel. Überlieferungsgutes bes. Dignität und Bindungswirkung zuzuschreiben, findet sich v.a. dort, wo akute Krisen der Orientierung und Praxis durch dezidierten Rückgriff zu bewältigen versucht werden. Der kath. T. im engeren Sinne ist daher als Phänomen des 19.Jh. eine Antwort au…