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International Law

(1,161 words)

Author(s): Kimminich, Otto
1. History Antiquity knew no international law, though early forms might be found in the relations among the Greek city-states. Even when the Roman Empire collapsed, 1,000 years passed before the development of an international order. When the concept of the unity of Christendom was abandoned, it came to be seen as both necessary and possible that a legal system should be set up to regulate relations between powers that were both equal and independent. The theory of a law that should regulate the …

Asylum

(972 words)

Author(s): Kimminich, Otto
1. Definition “Asylum” as a legal term means protection against persecution. Qualifiers used with the word indicate to whom, where, and how this protection is given. External (territorial) asylum is granted to a foreigner or stateless person. Internal asylum is granted only at specific places; for the most part, it now is only of historical interest. Diplomatic asylum by regional international law is permissible only in South America. 2. Religious Origin The origin of the word (from Gk. asylon, what may not be seized) shows that it first denoted an object ¶ or place that provided prot…

UNESCO

(421 words)

Author(s): Kimminich, Otto | Editors, the
The founding of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was proposed in 1943 by the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education, which was meeting to seek ways of rebuilding the systems of education crippled by the war. The UNESCO charter was signed in London by 37 countries on November 16, 1945. Its model was the International Committee of Intellectual Co-operation, which the League of Nations had organized in January 1921. As of October 2005, UNESCO had 191 member states and 6 associate members. Because of tensions between states,…