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Biondo, Flavio

(685 words)

Author(s): Laureys, Marc
Italian Humanist and historian. Born 1392 in Forlì, died 4. 6. 1463 at Rome. Trained as a notary in Cremona; worked in chambers 1410. 1423 marriage and banishment from Forlì (to 1427); official in the Veneto; 1433–1449 in Rome, working for the Papal Curia under Eugene IV, from 1436 as scriptor litterarum apostolicarum. With hostility towards him under Nicholas V, moved to northern Italy until 1452, then at royal court in Naples; 1453 again appointed to Papal Curia at Rome. Work and influence Although B. came from a modest civil lawyer’s background and did not complete univ. st…

Erasmus of Rotterdam

(2,555 words)

Author(s): Laureys, Marc
Erasmus, Desiderius; Dutch Humanist, theo-logian, philosopher and philologist. Born Rotterdam 27/28. 10. 1466 (probably correctly as in [29], rather than 1467 or 1469), died Basel 11/12. 7. 1536. School 1478–1487 at Deventer (chapter school of St. Lebuin); from 1484, after his mother’s death, at ’ s-Hertogenbosch (school of the Brethren of the Common Life). 1487–1488 entered canonry of Stein at Gouda, professing as canon-regular in the Augustinian rite. Holy orders 25. 4. 1492; 1493 named secretary to the Bishop of Cambrai, Hendrik van Bergen. …

Beatus Rhenanus

(1,123 words)

Author(s): Laureys, Marc
Beatus Bild; German Humanist and philologist. Born 22. 8. 1485 in Schlettstadt (now Sélestat, Alsace), into a family from Rheinau, hence called Rhinower – which, from his Paris student days, became the Latin Humanist name Rhenanus), died 20. 7. 1547 in Strasbourg. 1503–1507 studied at Faculty of Arts in Paris; work as proofreader in the officinae of, among …

Trithemius, Johannes

(574 words)

Author(s): Laureys, Marc
Real name Johannes Heidenberg/Zeller; also Johannes Tritheim; German Humanist. Born Trittenheim (T. called himself Tritemius after his place of birth) 1. 2. 1462, died Würzburg 13. 12. 1516. Studied at Trier and Heidelberg (without graduating). Entered the Benedictine monastery of Sponheim near Bad Kreuznach in 1482; elected abbot in 1483. Irreconcilable differences with (some of) the monks in 1505 led to the search for a new position. 1506 moved to the Abbey of St. Jakob in Würzburg; elected abbot there shortly after his arrival. …

Cleynaerts, Nicolaes

(566 words)

Author(s): Laureys, Marc
Nicolaus/Nicolas Clenard(us); Belgian Humanist, theologian, grammarian and Orientalist. Born Diest 5.(?) 12. 1495, died Granada 5. 11…

The Theory and Practice of History in Neo-Latin Literature

(9,015 words)

Author(s): Laureys, Marc
¶ The contributors to the recently published Oxford History of Historical Writing1

Cleynaerts, Nicolaes

(539 words)

Author(s): Laureys, Marc
Nicolaus/Nicolas Clenard(us); belg. Humanist, Theologe, Grammatiker und Orientalist. Geb. am 5.(?).12.1495 in Diest, gest. am 5. 11. 1542 in Granada. Studium der Theologie und der alten Sprachen in Löwen; 1521 Ernennung zum Präsidenten des (auch Kolleg von Houterlee genannten) Collegium Scholasticum ebda. Priesterweihe vermutlich auch um diese Zeit; in den 1520er Jahren Unterricht der griech. und hebr. Sprache an der dortigen Univ. 1531 Bibliothekar des Hernando Colón (Sohn des Columbus) in Sevi…

Erasmus von Rotterdam

(2,353 words)

Author(s): Laureys, Marc
Erasmus, Desiderius; niederl. Humanist, Theologe, Philosoph und Philologe. Geb. am 27/28. 10. 1466 (dies wohl das korrekte Geburtsjahr [29], eher als 1467 oder 1469) in Rotterdam, gest. am 11./12. 7. 1536 in Basel. Schulzeit 1478–1487 in Deventer (Kapitelschule von St. Lebuinus); ab 1484, nach dem Tod der Mutter, in ’s-Hertogenbosch (Schule der Brüder vom Gemeinsamen Leben); 1487–1488 Eintritt ins Kloster Stein bei Gouda, Profess als Augustiner-Chorherr; 25. 4. 1492 Priesterweihe; 1493 Ernennung…

Beatus Rhenanus

(1,034 words)

Author(s): Laureys, Marc
Beat Bild; dt. Humanist und Philologe. Geb. am 22. 8. 1485 in Schlettstadt (in eine Familie, die aus Rheinau stammte und den Namen Rhinower erhielt –…

Biondo, Flavio

(624 words)

Author(s): Laureys, Marc
Ital. Humanist und Historiker. Geb. 1392 in Forlì, gest. am 4. 6. 1463 in Rom. Ausbildung zum Notar in Cremona; ab 1410 in mehreren Kanzleien tätig. 1423 Ehe und Verbannung aus Forlì (bis 1427); Funktionär im Veneto; 1433–1449 in Rom im Dienst der päpstlichen Kurie unter Eugenius IV.; ab 1436 als scriptor litterarum apostolicarum. Nach feindlicher Stimmung gegen ihn unter Nikolaus V. Umzug nach Norditalien bis 1452, dann Aufenthalt am Königshof in Neapel; 1453 erneute Anstellung an der päpstlichen Kurie in Rom. Werk und Wirkung Obwohl B. aus bescheidenem Notarsmilieu kam und k…

Trithemius, Johannes

(489 words)

Author(s): Laureys, Marc
Eigentlich Johannes Heidenberg/Zeller; auch Johannes Tritheim; dt. Humanist. Geb. am 1. 2. 1462 in Trittenheim (T. nannte sich selbst nach seinem Geburtsort Tritemius), gest. am 13. 12. 1516 in Würzburg. Studium in Trier und Heidelberg (ohne akad. Abschluss). 1482 Eintritt in das Benediktinerkloster Sponheim bei Bad Kreuznach, 1483 dort zum Abt gewählt. Nach unüberbrückbarem Dissens mit (einem Teil) der Mönchsgemeinschaft 1505 Suche nach einem neuen Standort, 1506 Wechsel in die Abtei St. Jakob in Würzburg; dort kurz nach seiner Ankunft zum Abt gewählt.…

Leuven

(1,583 words)

Author(s): Laureys, Marc (Bonn)
A. OriginsAfter the Duke of Burgundy, Philip III (the Good) brought the Duchy of Brabant under his control in 1430, its political centre of gravity shifted permanently from L. to Brussels. Nonetheless, L. developed into a prominent centre of intellectual and cultural life, thanks to the university, which was founded in 1425 [5]. The foundation, which was instigated by the L. municipal authorities with the support of the canons of St. Peter's and Johann IV, Duke of Brabant, and which Pope Martin V sealed, was part of a first wave of academic expa…
Date: 2016-11-24

Lipsius, Justus

(1,638 words)

Author(s): Laureys, Marc (Bonn)
A. LifeJustus L. was a towering figure of Dutch and European Late Humanism across his entire spectrum of interests from text criticism to moral philosophy and political theory. He was particularly influential as the founder of Neostoicism (Stoicism). Born Joost Lips on October 18, 1547 at Overijse (near Brussels), he died on March 23/24, 1606 at Leuven. He studied at Cologne from 1559 to 1568 (1564 Baccalaureus artium) and Leuven. Between the autumn of 1568 and April 1570, he was at Rome (from May 1569 as secretary to Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle), where he…
Date: 2016-11-24

Neo-Latin

(10,008 words)

Author(s): Klopsch, Paul | Neuhausen, Karl August | Laureys, Marc
Klopsch, Paul I. Language (CT) [German version] A. Period (CT) The Latin language in the Modern Period, Neo-Latin (NL) [3], arose from a counter-movement against aspects of the preceding linguistic period, that of Medieval Latin.  The movement had its origins in the criticism by early Italian Humanists of the medieval, and particularly Scholastic, linguistic features which had become increasingly distant from Classical Latinity. As an approximate chronological boundary between Medieval Latin and NL we may…

Medieval Latin

(7,973 words)

Author(s): Klopsch, Paul | Laureys, Marc | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
Klopsch, Paul I. Language (CT) [German version] A. Vulgar Latin and Late Latin (CT) After the fall of the Classical world, the Latin language followed paths on two levels into the Middle Ages. The spoken language of ordinary people continued to be passed on from person to person, with regional differences and partly influenced by substrata, as a kind of mother tongue. Its features can be seen from time to time as intentional characterisation in the written language, as in Petronius' novel and, more frequentl…

Neulatein

(8,744 words)

Author(s): Klopsch, Paul | Neuhausen, Karl August | Laureys, Marc
Klopsch, Paul I. Sprache (RWG) [English version] A. Zeitrahmen (RWG) Die lat. Sprache der Neuzeit, das N. [3], ist aus einer Gegenbewegung gegen Erscheinungen der vorangehenden Sprachperiode, des Mittellateins, entstanden. Die Bewegung nimmt ihren Ausgang in der Kritik der frühen it. Humanisten an den von der klass. Latinität immer weiter entfernten ma., speziell scholastischen, Sprachgewohnheiten. Als Zeitgrenze zw. Mittellatein und N. gilt, nach dem Beschluß des 2. International Congress of Neo-Latin Studies (Amsterdam 1973), etwa das J. 1300. Klopsch, Paul …

Mittellatein

(6,765 words)

Author(s): Klopsch, Paul | Laureys, Marc | Berschin, Walter
Klopsch, Paul I. Sprache (RWG) [English version] A. Vulgärlatein und Spätlatein (RWG) Nach dem Untergang der ant. Welt hat die lat. Sprache auf zwei Ebenen ihren Weg ins MA genommen. Die gesprochene Sprache des gemeinen Mannes pflanzt sich, regional differenziert und z. T. unter dem Einfluß von Substraten, von Sprecher zu Sprecher als "Muttersprache" fort; ihre Merkmale lassen sich in der geschriebenen Sprache bisweilen als beabsichtigte Charakterisierungen, z. B. im Roman des Petronius erfassen, öfters al…