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Education

(10 words)

Author(s): Leese, Daniel
See School System and Higher Education Daniel Leese

International Organizations

(1,800 words)

Author(s): Leese, Daniel
The number of international organizations, including political organizations between states and non-governmental organizations (INGOs), has grown dramatically since the beginning of the second half of the 20th century. China, which otherwise pursued a foreign policy of non-integration (international relations up to 1949), was a founding member of the two most important international political organizations of the 20th century, the League of Nations and the United Nations. The League of Nations w…

Preface to the English Edition

(1,347 words)

Author(s): Leese, Daniel
In an article on the development of encyclopedias in China published in the Journal of World History in 1966, German Sinologist Wolfgang Bauer (1930-1997) characterized the fundamental aim of encyclopedic writing as transmitting a "sphere of knowledge" defined by a group of specialists for the purpose of general education. Within the Chinese tradition, encyclopedias have occupied a most important position and were often compiled on imperial command. It was especially during the Song and Qing dynasties that works of truly awe-inspiring scope were created, such as the Taiping Yulan o…

Instructions for using the encyclopedia

(688 words)

Author(s): Leese, Daniel
1. Access to the content of the encyclopedia can be gained in three ways. Users are recommended initially to consult the systematic overview of entries at the beginning, in order to acquaint themselves with the inner structure of the work. These headwords can also be directly searched in the alphabetical text section. There is a glossary of Chinese personal names giving Chinese characters and birth and death dates, where known. Keywords within the articles indicate related encyclopedia lemmata. Bibliographies for the individual entries follow the articles. 2. Transcriptions : The o…

Alphabetical List of Entries

(4,122 words)

Author(s): Leese, Daniel
A Academies Administrative Law 1. Concept, development and role 2. Administrative procedure and forms of action 3. Administrative controls 4. Administrative process 5. Government liability 6. Civil service law Adult education Advertising Aesthetics Africa Agricultural policy Agricultural Zones 1. Northeastern China 2. Inner Mongolia and the region along the Great Wall 3. Huang-He, Huai-He and Hai-He zone 4. High loess plateau 5. Middle and lower reaches of the Chang Jiang 6. Southwestern China 7. Southern China 8. Gansu-Xinjiang 9. Qinghai-Tibet Agriculture 1. Historical bac…

Systematic overview of entries

(941 words)

Author(s): Leese, Daniel
I. Geography National Geographic Units Climate Fauna and Flora Mineral Resources Natural Resources Yellow River Yangzi (Chang Jiang) Water Management Environmental Damage Environmental Protection Landscape Conservation Provinces Heilongjiang Jilin Liaoning Shenyang Dalian Hebei Shanxi Shandong Qingdao Jiangsu Nanjing Anhui Zhejiang Jiangxi Fujian Henan Hubei Wuhan Hunan Guangdong Guangzhou Hainan Shaanxi Xi'an Gansu Qinghai Sichuan Chengdu Guizhou Yunnan Autonomous Regions Inner Mongolia Ningxia Guangxi Xinjiang Tibet (Directly-Controlled Municipalities) Beijin…

Abbreviations

(209 words)

Author(s): Leese, Daniel
AJCA Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation ARF ASEAN Regional Forum ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations BCE Before the Common Era CE Common Era C.a. China aktuell CC Central Committee CCP Chinese Communist Party CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CPSU Communist Party of the Soviet Union CQ China Quarterly DAC Development Assistance Committee EC European Community EU European Union FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FDI Foreign Direct Investment FEER Far Eastern Economic Review FRG Federal Republic of Germany GDP Gross Domes…

Advisory Board (original German edition)

(227 words)

Author(s): Leese, Daniel
Robert Ash, Professor, Dept. of Economics, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London Marianne Bastid-Bruguière, Senior Research Professor at the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), Paris David S. G. Goodman, Professor of Contemporary China Studies, University of Technology, Sydney Thomas Heberer, Professor, Institute of East Asian Studies (Political Science), University of Duisburg-Essen Sebastian Heilmann, Professor, Center for East Asian and Pacific Studies (Political Science), University of Trier Jürgen Henze, Professor, Institute…

Chronology

(175 words)

Author(s): Leese, Daniel
Xia? c. 2000-1600 BCE Shang/Yin c. 1500-1045 BCE Zhou c. 1045-256 BCE Western Zhou c. 1045-771 BCE Eastern Zhou 770-256 BCE Spring and Autumn (Chunqiu) 770-481 BCE Warring States (Zhanguo) 480-222 BCE Qin 221-207 BCE Han 206 BCE-220 Western Han 206 BCE-8CE Xin (Wang Mang Period) 9-23 Eastern Han 25-220 Three Kingdoms (Sanguo) 220-265 Jin 265-420 Western Jin 265-316 Eastern Jin 317-420 Southern and Northern Dynasties (Nan Bei Chao) 420-581 (589) Sui 581 (589)-618 Tang 618-907 Five Dynasties (Wu Dai) 907-960 Song 960-1279 Northern Song 960-1127 Southern Song 1127-1279 Liao (Qitan) 947-1…