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United States of America

(5,352 words)

Author(s): Marty, Martin E.
1. Christian Churches 1.1. Indian Churches The story of Christianity in the United States of America should begin with reference to the conversion of Native Americans, long called Indians. Most of the conquerors and settlers claimed to have interest in converting the Indians by baptizing them and leading them to faith (Mission). However, a combination of several factors kept the Indians from being receptive to attempts at conversion. First, they had suffered terribly in acts of “Indian removal,” espec…

Chicago School

(485 words)

Author(s): Marty, Martin E.
[German Version] A convergence of scholars whose work exemplified some common concerns, meth¶ ods, and influences marked the life of the University of Chicago Divinity School in the first half of the 20th century. Shailer Mathews (1863–1941), author of The Faith of Modernism (1924) and dean of the faculty (1908–1933), along with systematic theologian George B. Foster, author of The Finality of the Christian Religion (1906), helped found this modernist school of Protestant theology. Mathews retraced the evangelical roots of modernism, but stress…

Chicago, University of

(356 words)

Author(s): Marty, Martin E.
[German Version] In 1892 the oil magnate J.D. Rockefeller and other Baptists participated in the founding of the private University of Chicago. As the heyday of tax-financed public universities was beginning, these pioneer spirits wished to promote scholarship, letting their course be guided by the doctoral programs of European universities. The former Baptist Union Theological Seminary, which had been located in the Chicago suburb of Morgan Park and shut its doo…

Liberation Theology

(3,266 words)

Author(s): Altmann, Walter | Marty, Martin E. | Mourkojannis, Daniel | Westhelle, Vítor
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Systematics I. Church History 1. Latin America, Africa, and Asia a. The birth of liberation theology is usually dated to 1971, when Gutiérrez published his Teologia de la liberación, or 1968, the year of the second Latin American Catholic Bishops' Conference in Medellín, Colombia. The two events represented the culmination of a process that had been underway in Latin America since the 1950s: the spread of the base community movements, which were working for social, political, and economi…