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(1,577 words)

Author(s): Negahban, Farzin
Abjadī, Mīr Muḥammad Ismāʿīl Abjadī (12th/18th century), an Indian poet who composed poems in both Persian and Urdu. His father, Sayyid Shāh Mīr, was from Bījāpūr in southern India, and was related to the famous historian Mullā Muḥammad Qāsim Firishtah. In his works Abjadī refers to the fact that both his father and grandfather wrote poetry (Maḥwī, introductory pp. alif, bāʾ). His father moved from Bījāpūr to Chingleput in the Karnātak region, where Abjadī was born (Abjadī, 1/113). Chingleput was one of the centres of Islamic culture in India, and it was…

Āghā Muḥammad Khān Qājār

(5,166 words)

Author(s): Negahban, Farzin
Āghā Muḥammad Khān Qājār (ca. 1155–1211/1742–1797) was the leader of the Qājār tribe, as well as the dynastic founder of a long line of Qājār rulers. He was born in Astarābād, the oldest son of Muḥammad Ḥasan Khān Quwānlū and ¶ the daughter of Iskandar Khān Quwānlū (Iʿtimād al-Salṭana, Tārīkh, 3/23). Muḥammad Ḥasan Khān succeeded his father Fatḥ ʿAlī Khān, the commander-in-chief ( sipahsālār) of the Ṣafawid Shāh Ṭahmāsb II, as leader of the Quwānlū (Ashāqa Bāsh) branch of the Qājār tribe in Astarābād and Gurgān. Muḥammad Ḥasan Khān’s claims to the throne we…

Abū Rakwa

(1,107 words)

Author(s): Negahban, Farzin
Abū Rakwa, al-Walīd b. Hishām b. ʿAbd al-Malik (d. 27 Jumādā II 397/20 March 1007), led a rebellion against al-Ḥākim, the Fāṭimid caliph in Egypt. He claimed to be an Umayyad prince and the offspring of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Dākhil, the first Umayyad ruler of al-Andalus (Ibn Khaldūn, 4(1)/120). Some historians have apparently confirmed this lineage (Ibn al-Qalānisī, 64; Ibn al-Athīr, 9/197; Ibn Taghrībirdī, 4/179, 215). A short while after the youthful Hishām al-Muʾayyad became Umayyad caliph of al-Andalus in 366/976, he was overthrown by al-Manṣūr Muḥammad b. Ab…

Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ahwāzī

(490 words)

Author(s): Negahban, Farzin
Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ahwāzī, Aḥmad b. al-Ḥusayn, was a Persian mathematician and astronomer of the 4th/10th and ¶ 5th/11th centuries. There is no information regarding the dates of his birth and death or the particulars of his life, although on the basis of his name it may be assumed that he was born in Ahwāz in Khūzistān (Qazwīnī, 152–153). His name is recorded in some manuscripts of Sharḥ al-maqāla al-ʿāshira li-Uqlīdis as al-Ahwāzī, which led Jung, De Goeje and Ahlwardt to make the assumption, based on the index to Kashf al-ẓunūn edited by Flügel, that he and ʿAbd Allāh b. Hilāl al-Ah…

Abū Quḥāfa

(438 words)

Author(s): Negahban, Farzin
Abū Quḥāfa, ʿUthmān b. ʿAmr b. Kaʿb Abū Quḥāfa, was the father of the first caliph Abū Bakr. There is little information about him, and what is mentioned in the sources is somewhat unreliable for it seems ¶ that most of the accounts have been somehow influenced by the fact that he was the father of the first caliph. He was descended from the Banū Taym and from the Quraysh (Ibn al-Kalbī, 80). It is said that he went blind (Ibn Ḥabīb, 296). According to one account, on the day that Mecca was conquered, he converted to Islam in the presence of the Prophet …

ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal

(721 words)

Author(s): Negahban, Farzin
ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (213–290/828–903) was the son of the founder of the Ḥanbalī school, and played an important role in promoting the works and teachings of his father. He pursued his education under the supervision of his father in his place ¶ of birth, Baghdad, and also studied the science of ḥadīth under the likes of Yaḥyā b. Maʿīn, Abū Bakr and ʿUthmān the sons of Abū Shayba, Abū Khaythama Zuhayr b. Ḥarb and Abū al-Rabīʿ al-Zahrānī (Ibn Abī Ḥātim, 2(2)/7; al-Khaṭīb, 9/375; al-Dhahabī, 13/517–520). The sources insist upon the reliability of his ḥadīths (Ibn Ab…

Abū al-Futūḥ al-Rāzī

(4,595 words)

Author(s): Negahban, Farzin
Abū al-Futūḥ al-Rāzī, Jamāl al-Dīn Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Khuzāʿī (born ca. 480/1087, d. after 552/1157), was a renowned Shiʿi scholar and exegete, author of the famous Qurʾānic commentary, Rawḍ (Rawḥ) al-jinān wa rawḥ al-janān. He came from a family of eminent scholars, and al-Afandī refers to them as a well-known silsila (chain) of Shiʿi scholars who have produced numerous works (al-Afandī, 2/158). Since his lineage can be traced back to Nāfiʿ b. Badīl b. Warqāʾ al-Khuzāʿī, it can be said that he was of Arab origin (Abū al-Futūḥ, …

Abū al-ʿAbbās al-Sayyārī

(767 words)

Author(s): Negahban, Farzin
Abū al-ʿAbbās al-Sayyārī, al-Qāsim b. al-Qāsim (262–342 /876–953), was a well-known gnostic, theologian and traditionist from Marw. His maternal grandfather was Abū al-Ḥasan Aḥmad b. Sayyār, who was himself a prominent theologian and traditionist, and for this reason Abū al-ʿAbbās became known as al-Sayyārī (Ibn Mākūlā, 4/509; al-Samʿānī, 7/329; Ibn al-Athīr, 2/162). His family consisted of scholars and administrators (al-Hujwīrī, 198; ʿAṭṭār, 777). He inherited a great deal of wealth after his fa…

Abū Rashīd al-Nīsābūrī

(2,934 words)

Author(s): Negahban, Farzin
Abū Rashīd al-Nīsābūrī, Saʿīd b. Muḥammad (b. before 345/956, d. after 415/1024), was a Persian theologian and follower of the Muʿtazilī school of Baṣra. His grandfather's name is recorded as Saʿīd in the manuscript of al-Masāʾil (Ahlwardt, 4/448, no. 5125) and as al-Ḥasan b. Ḥātim in Lisān al-mīzān (Ibn Ḥajar, 3/292). Information on his life is scant, and much of what is available can be found in Ibn Karrāma al-Jushamī's (d. 494/1101) Sharḥ al-ʿuyūn (pp. 382–383), quoted verbatim in Ibn al-Murtaḍā's al-Munya wa al-amal (p. 197). The information in Sharḥ al-ʿuyūn has to be pieced tog…

Aḥmad al-Nāṣir

(1,565 words)

Author(s): Negahban, Farzin
Aḥmad al-Nāṣir, Abū al-Ḥasan Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā b. al-Ḥusayn b. al-Qāsim al-Rassī, known as al-Nāṣir li Dīn Allāh (d. 322/934), was a jurist, theologian and one of the famous Zaydī imams of Yemen. His father, Yaḥyā b. al-Ḥusayn al-Hādī ilā al-Ḥaqq, was an ʿAlid from the Banū Ṭabāṭabā (descended from al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī) and one of the most distinguished figures in Zaydī jurisprudence, as well as the founder of the Zaydī imamate in Yemen. His mother, Fāṭimā bint al-Ḥasan, was a descendant of al-Qāsim al-Rassī, a prominent Zaydī scholar and imam (al-Muḥallī, 2/42, 46). Aḥmad was away in the Ḥijāz…

Chaghatāy Khānate

(2,970 words)

Author(s): Rajabzadeh, Hashem | Negahban, Farzin
, the name of a dynasty of descendants of Chaghatāy (q.v.), one of the sons of Chingīz Khān, also called the ulus (domain) of Chaghatāy. The Chaghatāy khans ruled for 136 years (624–764/1227–1363) over Transoxania (Mā warāʾ al-Nahr) and parts of Khwārazm, Kāshghar (Kashgar), Khutan (Khotan) and other regions until they were overthrown by Tīmūr leng (Tamerlane) in 764/1363. Chaghatāy’s descendants sought to expand the area under their control, originally conquered by Chingīz Khān, and according to Rashīd al-Dīn Faḍl Allāh ‘in the time of Ögedey in the ye…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ubayy

(1,281 words)

Author(s): Bahramian, Ali | Negahban, Farzin
ʿAbd Allāh b. Ubayy, Abū Ḥubāb (d. Dhū al-Qaʿda 9/February 631), was a leading member of the tribe of Khazraj, from the town of Medina (Yathrib), who attained notoriety as a hypocrite ( munāfiq) after the advent of Islam. He was from the Banū Awf branch of the tribe of Khazraj (Ibn al-Kalbī, 1/414, 417). The name of his paternal grandmother, Salūl, usually appears after that of his father's in his lineage (Ibn Hishām, 2/89; Ibn Saʿd, 3/540; al-Balādhurī, Futūḥ, 92). Some time before the Prophet's migration ( hijra) to Medina, ʿAbd Allāh b. Ubayy was regarded as one of the leaders o…

Abū al-Shīṣ

(2,683 words)

Author(s): Azarnoosh, Azartash | Negahban, Farzin
Abū al-Shīṣ, Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Razīn al-Khuzāʿī (d. 196/812) was a poet during the early ʿAbbāsid period. He lived during the most brilliant period of Arabic poetry. All the sources that refer to him do so with reverence holding his poetry in high esteem. Nevertheless, his Dīwān is not so well known now, and there is little information about him. Abū al-Shīṣ was the cousin of Diʿbil b. ʿAlī b. Razīn al-Khuzāʿī, the well-known poet (Ibn Qutayba, 2/721; Ibn al-Muʿtazz 72; Ibn al-Nadīm, 183). According to Abū al-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī (16/400), hi…


(4,397 words)

Author(s): Bahramian, Ali | Negahban, Farzin
Afshīn (d. Shaʿbān 226/June 841) was a famous Persian general during the reigns of the ʿAbbāsid caliphs al-Maʾmūn and al-Muʿtaṣim. In the majority of sources he is referred to by the name ‘Khaydhar’, and Abū Tammām mentions him by this name in a poem written immediately after his capture and death (2/198, 202; al-Ṭabarī, 9/11; Abū al-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, 8/250; al-Masʿūdī, al-Tanbīh, 169). In other sources he is called Ḥaydar (Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ, 2/787; al-Balādhurī, 211; al-Dīnawarī, 403). Certain later authors clearly marked the name as Khaydhar to preve…

Chihil Sutūn (Qazwīn)

(1,851 words)

Author(s): Parhizkari, Mehrzad | Negahban, Farzin
, mostly known as Kulāh-Farangī-yi Shāh Ṭahmāsb before 1300/1883, a Ṣafawid pavilion located in Qazwīn’s Saʿādat Ābād garden, originally used for government purposes ( Dawlat-khānah). History Once rid of the lengthy wars against the Ottomans and with security returning to western parts of Persia, the Ṣafawid ruler Shāh Ṭahmāsb I (d. 984/1576) acquired some lands known as Zangī Ābād from Mīrzā Sharaf Jahān Qazwīnī and then commissioned the most eminent builders in the country to create a square-shaped garden with intersec…

Aḥmad b. Abī Duʾād al-Ibādī

(2,367 words)

Author(s): Sajjadi, Sadeq | Negahban, Farzin
Aḥmad b. Abī Duʾād al-Ibādī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh (ca. 160–Muḥarram 240/777–June 854), was a well-known Muʿtazilī jurist and judge, and the initiator of the miḥna (literally, ‘ordeal’ or inquisition) process in the first period of the reign of the ʿAbbāsids. As his lineage shows, he came from the large tribe of Ibād. His father’s name is said to have been Faraj or Duʿmā, but according to one of his descendants, his name was identical with his kunya, that is, Abū Duʾād b. Jarīr (al-Khaṭīb, 4/141, 142; cf. al-Dhahabī, Siyar, 11/169, where Ḥarīz is a corruption of Jarīr). Aḥmad’s family are…

ʿAbd Allāh Shīrāzī

(800 words)

Author(s): Gholami, Yadollah | Negahban, Farzin
ʿAbd Allāh Shīrāzī was a Ṣafawid painter. Extant sources suggest that ʿAbd Allāh was connected to Abū al-Fatḥ Ibrāhīm b. Bahrām, ḥākim (governor) of Mashhad and nāẓir (supervisor) of the Library of Imam Riḍā's shrine, from the time of the latter's appointment in 964/1557 until his assassination twenty years later on 6 Dhū al-Ḥijja 984/24 February 1577 at Qazwīn (Qummī, 148; Soucek, 205). ʿAbd Allāh, who was apparently an intimate companion of Sulṭān Ibrāhīm Mīrzā, joined the atelier of the Ṣafawid king Ismāʿīl II after ¶ Ibrāhīm Mīrzā's death. Ismāʿīl died on 15 Ramaḍān 985/26 No…


(1,196 words)

Author(s): Mohammadi, Parvaneh | Negahban, Farzin
Anqarawī, Rusūkh al-Dīn Ismāʿīl b. Aḥmad (d. 1041/1631), who wrote under the name Rusūkhī and was also known as Rusūkhī Dada, was a Sufi shaykh who wrote a commentary on Rūmī’s Mathnawī. There is little information about his life except that he or his family must have come from Ankara (hence his nisba), and that he first followed a branch of the Khalwatī ṭarīqa (Sufi path) called Bāyrāmiyya before joining the Mawlawiyya order and becoming the representative ( khalīfa) of its shaykh (Sufi master) Bustan Çelebi. A while later he went to Istanbul and took charge of the guida…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Muṭīʿ

(1,264 words)

Author(s): Bahramian, Ali | Negahban, Farzin
ʿAbd Allāh b. Muṭīʿ (d. 73/692) was a famous supporter of ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr (q.v.), and for a while governed Kūfa as his representative. He was from the Banū ʿAdī branch of the Quraysh (Ibn al-Kalbī, 108; al-Balādhurī, 10/480; Ibn Qudāma al-Maqdisī, 436). His father, whose name was initially al-ʿĀṣ and then changed by ¶ the Prophet to Muṭīʿ, embraced Islam after the conquest of Mecca and died during the caliphate of ʿUthmān (Ibn Saʿd, 5/450; al-Balādhurī, 10/480; Ibn Ḥazm, 158). ʿAbd Allāh's uncle Masʿūd b. al-Aswad was one of the Prophet's Com…

Al-Amīn, Muḥsin

(670 words)

Author(s): Ansari, Mohammad | Negahban, Farzin
Al-Amīn, Muḥsin (1284–1371/1867–1952), the son of ʿAbd al-Karīm ʿĀmilī, was an Shiʿi faqīh (jurist) and reformer in Syria. He was born into a family who were well-known descendants of the Prophet Muḥammad in the village of Shaqrā in the Jabal ʿĀmil, now in southern Lebanon. After completing his preliminary studies there, he went on to study logic ( manṭiq) and the fundamentals of Arabic language and literature ( naḥw and bayān) in Barāghīth, also in Jabal ʿĀmil. He then went to Bint Jubayl to study under Mūsā Sharāra, who had studied in Najaf. In 1308/1891 he trav…
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