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Dogma

(3,126 words)

Author(s): Peters, Albrecht
1. History of the Term Like the verb dokeō, its cognate noun dogma in classical Greek has a double sense: (1) from the transitive “believe, think,” it may denote a way of thinking (in philosophy, medicine, or law); (2) from the intransitive “seem good,” it may denote a resolution or edict. Thus the LXX, Philo, and Josephus use it with reference to the law, and Luke uses it both for imperial edicts (Luke 2:1; Acts 17:7; see also Heb. 11:23 var.) and for the resolutions of the apostolic council (note the use of dokeō in Acts 15:22–29, dogma in 16:4), with an emphasis on universality and a…

Sanctification

(2,262 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz | Strecker, Georg | Peters, Albrecht
1. OT 1.1. Term “Sanctification” denotes the transition from the ordinary secular sphere to the sphere of the holy (Sacred and Profane), but then also the analogous transition from the sphere of impurity (on the margin) to the normal sphere of purity (e.g., Lev. 11:44). On the OT view God himself is the quintessence of the holy (he is the Holy One, or the Holy One of Israel, and the beings around him are holy ones; see Isa. 6:3; Ps. 89:7; 99:5, 9). Primarily, then, sanctification is movement into proximity to God, though this movement can be understood in different ways. 1.2. In Space and Time First…

Law

(6,408 words)

Author(s): Würthwein, Ernst | Hübner, Hans | Peters, Albrecht
1. OT 1.1. Term The idea of law has many nuances in the OT, which we see from the different words used for it. Thus we have mišpāṭı̂m (ordinances), huqqı̂m (statutes), miṣwôt (commandments), dĕbārı̂m (words), and others. These terms cover civil and criminal law and both the ethical and the cultic sphere. More comprehensively after Deuteronomy we find tôrâ, which originally denoted only the direction of the priest in cultic, legal, and moral questions (Deut. 33:10; Hos. 4:6; Mic. 4:2; Jer. 18:18; Ezek. 7:26; Mal. 2:6–7) but in Deuteronomy is used for the whole revelati…