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Sandhi

(2,696 words)

Author(s): Robert D. Hoberman
The term sandhi (from Sanskrit saṃdhi ‘putting together’) refers to phonological processes that apply when two morphemes (roots, stems, or affixes) are juxtaposed. This very general term has been used in a variety of senses. In its broadest sense, sandhi includes the selection of alternative forms (allomorphs) at the joining of two morphemes within a word (internal sandhi) as well as processes that apply between adjacent words in a phrase (external sandhi), and in this broad sense it encompasses a la…
Date: 2018-04-01

Pausal Forms

(4,476 words)

Author(s): Robert D. Hoberman
  1. Introduction A pausal form is the form a word has at the end of a sentence or major phrase or before a pause or stop in the speech flow ( waqf), if that is different from the form it takes in the beginning or middle of a phrase. In Classical and Modern Standard Arabic, most words have different pausal and medial forms. Phonetic pausal phenomena probably occur in all languages, although they may differ from language to language, but morphologically conditioned pausal changes are much rarer, and they are the ones most often…
Date: 2018-04-01