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Sandhi

(2,701 words)

Author(s): Robert D. Hoberman
What is significant about sandhi in all its senses is the fact that it depends on constituents and their boundaries, and therefore it marks or indicates those boundaries. Sandhi facilitates the hearer's identification of morphemes within a word or of the boundaries between phrases within a sentence. Thus, in Classical Arabic the alternation between the full and pausal forms of words helps mark phrase boundaries; for example, in madīnatun kabīrah ‘a big city’, the -h in the pausal form kabīrah (as opposed to the full form kabīratun, which occurs in other situations) marks it as be…

Pausal Forms

(4,478 words)

Author(s): Robert D. Hoberman
1. Introduction A pausal form is the form a word has at the end of a sentence or major phrase or before a pause or stop in the speech flow ( waqf), if that is different from the form it takes in the beginning or middle of a phrase. In Classical and Modern Standard Arabic, most words have different pausal and medial forms. Phonetic pausal phenomena probably occur in all languages, although they may differ from language to language, but morphologically conditioned pausal changes are much rarer, and they are the ones most often …