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(755 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Anfänge B. (engl. Bible Societies) als Organisationen zur Verbreitung der Bibel sind erst im 18./19. Jh. entstanden. Doch die Aufgabe der Bibelverbreitung in der Volkssprache resultiert schon aus dem reformatorischen Verständnis der Bibel als einziger Autorität in christl. Glaubensfragen und des Priestertums aller Getauften, das allein auf die Bibel angewiesen ist ( Reformation). Mit der durch den Buchdruck ermöglichten Verbreitung von Luthers Bibelübersetzung, die in außerdt. protest. Ländern zu gleichen Unternehmungen anregte, begann die Entwicklung…

Soziale Bewegungen, religiöse

(3,539 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Definition Religiöse S. B. sind kollektive Akteure mit relig. Motiven und Zielen, die einen partiellen oder umfassenden Wandel der Verhältnisse in der Religion (eventuell auch in der Gesellschaft) herbeiführen wollen (vgl. Religiöse Reformbewegungen) oder versuchen, bestehende Zustände zu verteidigen und Veränderungen zu verhindern oder rückgängig zu machen (Widerstands-Bewegungen). Schneider, Hans 2. Geschichte der Begriffe 2.1. Allgemein Abgeleitet von der B. im physikalischen Sinn (zeitliche Ortsveränderung eines Beobachtungsobjekts) wird der Be…


(2,188 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Allgemein Der J., benannt nach Cornelius Jansen d. J. (1585–1638), war die bedeutendste innerkath. Oppositions- und Reformbewegung des 17./18. Jh.s ( Religiöse Reformbewegungen). Er war v. a. in Frankreich und den Niederlanden verbreitet, fand aber auch in Spanien, Portugal, Italien und Österreich Anhänger. Der J. zielte ursprünglich auf eine Reform der Theologie und Frömmigkeit unter Rückgriff auf den Kirchenvater Augustinus, doch entstanden in den einzelnen Ausbreitungsgebieten und Entwicklungsphasen verschiedene Ausprägungen. Infolge der päpst…


(827 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
Die Anhänger der Lehren des schlesischen Theosophen und Mystikers Jakob Böhme wurden schon in der polemischen Literatur (Polemik) des 17. Jh.s »B.« genannt. Die B. formierten sich weder zu einer religiösen Sondergemeinschaft noch bildeten sie eine klar abgrenzbare philosophische Schule aus. Mit Gedanken Böhmes verschmolzen von Anfang an andere Traditionen, so dass der »Böhmismus« ein schillerndes Phänomen darstellt. Böhme wirkte zum einen durch seine Theosophie. In den Umbrüchen der Frühen Nz. schien manchen Zeitgenossen wie auch späteren Lesern, dene…


(921 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
Adherents to the teachings of the Silesian theosophist and mystic Jakob Böhme were already called “Behmenists” ( Böhmisten) in the polemical literature (Polemic, theological) of the 17th century. The Behmenists neither formed a special religious community of their own nor did they constitute a clearly definable philosophical school. From the very beginning, Böhme’s ideas merged with other traditions so that “Behmenism” represents a shifting phenomenon.Böhme’s impact came first through his theosophy. In the turmoil of the early modern period, many contemporar…
Date: 2017-02-14

Bible Society

(826 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Beginnings Bible Societies, organizations for the dissemination of the Bible, first came into being in the 18th/19th century. However, the task of Bible distribution in the vernacular is a natural consequence of the Reformation understanding of the Bible as sole authority in matters of Christian faith and the priesthood of all baptized people, which is dependent only on the Bible (Reformation). The printing-facilitated dissemination of Luther’s Bible translation, which stimulated similar undert…
Date: 2017-02-14

Councils of the Church

(4,143 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Term “Council,” as well as the originally synonymous “synod” (from Lat. concilium and Gk. synodos, both meaning “assembly”), refers to gatherings of church representatives for the purpose of discussing matters of faith and order, reaching decisions, and issuing decrees. The Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church use the term “council” mainly for gatherings of bishops. Modern usage, which distinguishes national and provincial synods from ¶ general councils, developed at a later date, with its beginnings in the Middle Ages. The Orthodox Church recognizes only the s…


(738 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
“Conciliarism” is the theory that general councils represent the supreme church court, specifically, that they are superior to the pope. Its roots lie in the discussions of medieval canonists (Canon Law), ¶ especially concerning papal immunity and responsibility. The heresy clause in the Decretum Gratiani (ca. 1140) states the principle that the pope can be judged by no one as long as he does not deviate from the faith (40.6). An extension of the concept of heresy included simony and persistence in schism. In the 12th century this line of thought led to a broad discussion of …


(659 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
The name “Huguenots” for French Protestants at home and abroad derives from the transferring of a local story from Tours concerning Hugh Capet (d. 996) to the Protestants who met by night. It does not derive etymologically from Iguenots (= Eidgenossen, “confederates,” i.e., part of the Swiss Confederation) but is a diminutive of Hugo. It was used by others from about 1555 and adopted by the Protestants, especially emigrants, as a term for themselves after 1685. The rise of the party name marks the transition from the Protestant movement to a church that, under the inf…

Reform Councils

(1,721 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Term and Prior History The term “reform councils” in the broad sense refers to all councils that dealt with the matter of reform in the church and that made reforming decisions. In the narrow sense it refers to the 15th-century councils of Pisa, Constance, Pavia-Siena, and Basel, which viewed it as their chief aim to reform the church “in head and members.” All through the Middle Ages church reform had been linked to councils and synods. Already in the Merovingian age reforming synods had sought to restore the law of God and the church’s order. In the 11…


(1,154 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Political Separatism is a breakaway movement either politically or ecclesiastically. In French séparatisme also denotes the separation of church and state. Politically, separatism involves the efforts to detach a state or a federation of states and either to make them independent or to incorporate them into a neighboring state. Germany after World War I saw a movement between 1919 and 1924 for a free Rhenish state. The term “separatism” replaced older ones such as Sonderbündelei (“special clustering,” after Sonderbund, “special federation,” used in the 19th century by R…

Antimodernist Oath

(150 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
In 1910 Pope Pius X (1903–14) required all Roman Catholic priests to take the Antimodernist Oath (Motu proprio Sacrorum antistitum) in rejection of the errors of modernism. It also had to be taken before taking higher order (Consecration) or institution to office. Non-Catholics viewed its introduction as evidence of Roman Catholic backwardness and intolerance. In the long run, the oath could not suppress the problems raised by modernism. In 1967 a new Professio fidei became obligatory, replacing the oath with a general confession of the church’s teaching. Hans SchneiderBibliography…


(429 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
Since the debate about papal infallibility in the 19th century, the term “Gallicanism” has been used for the theological doctrines and political practice of the state church in France (Church and State). In the late Middle Ages national and ecclesiastical interests (Conciliarism), joining forces in opposition to the universal claims of the papacy and curial centralism, had secured a wide measure of autonomy for the French church. Les libertés de l’Église gallicane (The freedoms of the Gallican church; 1594), compiled by P. Pithou, and the Preuves (Evidences; 1639) of P. Dupuy gai…

Constance, Council of

(274 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] The reform Council of Constance met from 1414 to 1418. The joint efforts of the German king, Sigismund (1410–1437), and the pope of the Pisan obedience (Pisa, Council of), John XXIII, to heal the Western Schism led to a council held in the imperial free city of Constance; it became the largest ecclesiastical congress of the Middle Ages. Its major tasks were to restore the unity of the church ( causa unionis), oppose the heresies of J. Wycliffe and J. Hus ( causa fidei), and reform the church ( causa reformationis). When John XXIII sought to evade the council's demand t…

Daut, Johann Maximilian

(158 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (died after 1736), radical Pietist. A cobbler's apprentice, he was expelled from his home city, Frankfurt am Main, in 1709, because of his polemics against the church and authority, led an irregular life as a wandering prophet (Wittgenstein region, Leiden and Altona). In view of the impending judgment of God, he called “false and unrepentant C…

Hochmann von Hochenau, Ernst Christoph

(254 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (1669/ 1670, Lauenburg/Elbe – Jan 12 [?], 1721, Schwarzenau), one of the chief proponents of radical Pietism. The son of a Lutheran official and his Catholic wife, Hochmann studied law at several universities, experienced conversion in Halle with accompanying enthusiastic phenomena and worked as a tutor in Pietist homes for some years. Before the turn of the century, associated with millennialist expectations (Millenarianism), he appeared in Switzerland, in Frankfurt, Laubach and …

Mel, Conrad

(190 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Aug 14, 1666, Gudensberg near Kassel – May 3, 1733, Hersfeld). Mel studied in Rinteln, Bremen and Groningen, and was influenced by covenant theology and the Reformed Pietism of T. Undereyck. In 1690 he became preacher in Mitau (Kurland), 1692 in Memel, 1697 court preacher, and, from 1702, also professor in Königsberg. Here he held conventicles and, influenced by G.W. Leibniz, devised plans for missionary work among the heathen. In 1701 he became a member of the Prussian Akademie …

Poiret, Pierre

(318 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Apr 15, 1646, Metz – May 21, 1719, Rijnsburg, near Leiden), French mystic. After attending school, Poiret became a tutor in French at the court of the counts of Hanau-Lichtenberg in Bouxwiller, Alsace. From 1664 he studied theology at Basel, Hanau, and Heidelberg. After ordination in 1669, he served as an assistant minister in French Reformed churches of the Palatinate (Otterberg, Frankenthal, Mannheim). From 1672 to 1676 he was pastor in Annweiler. During these years he had his …

Rijnsburg Collegiants

(290 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] The Rijnsburg Collegiants were a Dutch religious group of the 17th and 18th centuries. When, after the Synod of Dort, the ministers of the Remonstrants (Arminians) were banned, the church elder Gisbert van der Codde and his brothers (Jan the elder, Arie, and Jan the younger) set up meetings for worship ( collegia) without a minister, in 1619 in Warmond and in 1621 in Rijnsburg, with reading of Scripture, prayer, and open preaching. In the course of the 17th century, these meetings were amplified by further collegia in other towns; the most important, in Rotterdam a…


(392 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] 1. Ludwig (Mar 29, 1586, Laasphe – Dec 7, 1655, Bremen). After studying at Herborn, Marburg, and Basel (Dr.theol. 1609), the Reformed theologian Ludwig Crocius became a pastor in Bremen and professor at the Gymnasium Illustre, of which he later became headmaster. With M. Martini and Heinrich Isselburg, he participated in the Synod of Dort as a delegate from the Bremen church. He was a prominent representative of the school of Bremen theologians fou…
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