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Prepositions

(3,143 words)

Author(s): Stephan Procházka
All prepositions in Arabic, regardless of whether they are classified as ‘primary prepositions’ or ‘secondary prepositions’ (see discussion below), share several syntactic features. First, they always precede the noun they govern – in other words, in Arabic there are no postpositions. Second, all Arabic prepositions require the genitive case; hence, in Arabic they are called ḥurūf al-jarr ‘particles of the genitive’ (other terms used by the native grammarians for prepositions are ḥurūf al-xafḍ, ḥurūf al-ʾiḍāfa, and al-jawārr). This salient feature of Arabic prepositions…

Cilician Arabic

(5,197 words)

Author(s): Stephan Procházka
1. General 1.1 Area and range The Arabic dialects of Cilicia (Southern Turkey) are spoken in the three large cities of the Cilician Plain ( Çukurova), namely Adana, Tarsus, and Mersin, as well as in about 25 villages situated to the south of these towns (see map). The total number of an estimated 70,000 Arabic speakers comprises three communities who differ in both religion and dialect: 66,500 Nusayri- Alawis, 4,000 Sunnis and 1,000 Christians (the latter two groups found only in Mersin). Cilician Arabic is isolated both from the Arab countries themselves and from other Arabi…

Color terms

(3,082 words)

Author(s): Stephan Procházka
The Evolution of the Basic Color Terminology in Arabic  In this short description of the system of basic colors in Arabic we follow the classical study by B. Berlin & P. Kay, who postulated that a basic color term has to be: (a) monolexemic, (b) not included by the range of another color, (c) applicable to all contexts, and (d) psychologically salient to native speakers (Berlin & Kay 1969:6). During its approximately 1400 years of traceable history, written Arabic has developed from a language with only …

Turkish Loanwords

(4,030 words)

Author(s): Stephan Procházka
1. History of contacts Close contacts between the Arabs and speakers of Turkic languages go back to the first half of the 9th century, when the Abbasid caliphs began recruiting Turks from Central Asia as Praetorian guards. Although some of these mercenaries – for instance ʾAḥmad ibn Ṭūlūn and his successors – were even de facto rulers of Egypt (868–905), their language left hardly any traces in Arabic. The same is true of such later Turkish dynasties as the Ikhshidids and Seljuks. However, during the rule of the Mamluks in general (13th–16th centuries), and of the Baḥrī Maml…