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Judaism, History of, Part V.B: Modern Times. The Muslim World

(10,641 words)

Author(s): Stillman, Norman A.
The expulsion of the Jews from Christian Spain in 1492 in a very real sense marked the beginning of modern times for the Jews of the Muslim world. Many of the exiles sought refuge in the Islamic kingdoms of the Maghreb, in Mamluk Egypt and the Levant, and in the expanding Ottoman Empire, which within a generation would take over all of the Middle East and North Africa between the borders of Persia and Morocco. These Sephardic refugees infused new vitality—demographically, culturally, and spiritu…

Judaism, History of, Part IV.B: Medieval Times. Islam

(10,626 words)

Author(s): Stillman, Norman A.
It is virtually impossible to know what was normative Judaism and Jewish practice during the first two hundred years of the Muslim Caliphate, in the seventh through ninth centuries. The great Islamic Arab conquests of the seventh and early eighth centuries brought the majority of world Jewry living at that time from Spain to Persia and Central Asia under the rule of a single empire, the Dar al-Islam (“the Domain of Islam”). The two hundred years immediately preceding the Islamic conquests and fo…