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Formation of Doric Koines, The

(2,273 words)

Author(s): Vit Bubenik
Abstract During the last three pre-Christian centuries the ‘Koineization’ processes in the Doric territories gave rise to several regional varieties referred to as Doric Koines: North-West Koine (with the focus in Aetolia), Achaean Doric Koine (in Peloponnesian Achaea), South-East Aegean Koine (in Dodecanese with the focus in Rhodes), and Sicilian Koine. Their phonological and morphological features can be studied by means of numerous inscriptions from these areas. 1. Introduction The period of Macedonian domination resulted in a thorough-going change in th…
Date: 2013-11-01

Koine, Origins of

(6,150 words)

Author(s): Vit Bubenik
Abstract The term ‘Koine’ ( koinḕ diálektos ‘common language’) was first used to refer to the form of Greek which served as a ‘lingua franca’ during the Hellenistic and Roman periods. It was a ‘compromise’ Attic-based variety (characterized by a certain reduction in morphological categories) which became the ‘official’ language of the Macedonian empire on the Greek mainland and in its oriental domains. It was used as a literary language by historiographers, writers of technical prose, popular litera…
Date: 2013-11-01

Desideratives

(613 words)

Author(s): Vit Bubenik
Abstract Desideratives are secondary derivatives from verbal and nominal roots displaying stems consisting of two thematic formants:  -i-a and - s-ei. Both are documented already in Homer; in the latter language the formation in -s-ei is found above all in Doric dialects (known as ‘Doric future’). The category of desideratives is also well developed in Indo-Aryan, but in spite of certain morphological resemblances, Indo-Aryan and Hellenic developed this category independently.   Desideratives are secondary derivatives from verbal and nominal roots displaying ste…
Date: 2013-11-01

Agent Nouns

(661 words)

Author(s): Vit Bubenik
Abstract Agent nouns ( nomina agentis) in Greek are formed by several suffixes (- tḗr/-́tōr, -tās, -tēs, -eús, as well as some others). This article discusses their feminine counterparts, productivity, distribution and diachrony. Agent nouns ( nomina agentis) in Greek were formed by means of the following suffixes (with their feminine counterparts): i. -tḗr/-́tōr, feminine   -́ teir-ă, -́tri-ă ii. -tās (Attic-Ionic -tēs), feminine -́t-id- iii. -eús, feminine -́ei-ă iv. (late) feminine -́issa v. (late) feminine -aríā (?) (borrowed from Latin -ā́ria) The agent-noun suffixe…
Date: 2013-11-01

Action Nouns

(689 words)

Author(s): Vit Bubenik
Abstract There are several suffixes deriving nouns of action in Greek (- sis, -sí-ā, -eí-ā, -mós, -tū́s). In this article their productivity and distribution are discussed. In Greek, action nouns ( nomina actionis) are derived by means of the following suffixes (Derivational Morphology): i. - sis (<*tis) ii. - sí-ā iii. - eí-ā iv. -mós and -ma v. -tū́s (i) - sis is the most productive action suffix: lú-ō ‘loosen’ > lú-sis ‘loos(en)ing, setting free’. It goes back to PIE *-ti ( phú-sis ‘nature’ < *bhū-ti, cf. Skt. bhū́-ti ~ bhū-tí ‘being, ability’). In Mycenaean and East Greek (Ionic), -…
Date: 2013-11-01

Greek Loanwords in Slavic

(710 words)

Author(s): Vit Bubenik
Abstract There are about 150 loanwords in the Old Church Slavonic corpus of the texts of the 9th - 11th c. Prominent among them are theological terms and names of professions, and those reflecting biblical realia. After the 11th c. Greek borrowings and loan translations appear in hundreds, in correspondence with the needs of the fast developing ecclesiastic and secular literature.   There are about 150 loanwords in the Old Church Slavonic corpus of the texts of the 9th - 11th c. CE. Prominent among them are (i) theological terms, (ii) names of professions, and…
Date: 2013-11-01

Greek and Aramaic

(2,331 words)

Author(s): Vit Bubenik
Abstract Our primary evidence for the impact of Greek on Aramaic comes from the post-Christian centuries. The Rabbinic literature in Hebrew and Aramaic (3rd - 7th c. CE) manifests pervasive influence of Hellenistic and Early Byzantine Greek in its lexicon (the Palestinian Talmud, Midrashim and Targums contain more than 3000 words of Greek origin); further research is necessary regarding their structural influence. Vice versa, Hellenistic inscriptions from Palestine display no Aramaisms (or Hebraisms), in contrast with the situation in …
Date: 2013-11-01

Heteroclitics

(700 words)

Author(s): Vit Bubenik
Abstract The term ‘heteroclisis’ refers to a combination of r- and n-stems found in a small group of Indo-European neuter nouns called heteroclitics (e.g. Lat. femur ‘thigh’, gen. femin-is, Gk. húdōr  ‘water’, gen. húdat-os from *húdn̥t-os). It could be that the stem formant -r/n- reconstructible for PIE on the basis of Greek and other archaic IE languages is a relic of a pre-PIE classifier system. A combination of r- and n- stems is found in a small group of Indo-European neuter nouns called heteroclitics. The r-stem appears only in the nom./acc., the n-stem elsewhere, as in Latin femur
Date: 2013-11-01

Language Contact

(5,136 words)

Author(s): Vit Bubenik
Abstract Greek (Mycenaean, Classical, Hellenistic, Byzantine) was in manifold contacts with a number of languages ‒ Ancient Semitic, Thracian, Illyrian, Lycian, Lydian, Iranian, Latin, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac, Egyptian, Coptic, Celtic, Indic and Arabic. Previous research has concentrated above all on the lexicon; more recently there has been renewed interest in the matters of structural (morpho-syntactic) borrowing which of course is feasible only in cases of larger inscriptional and literary corpora (Latin, Coptic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac).   1. Introductory Remarks Th…
Date: 2013-11-01

Compound Tenses (Hellenistic Greek)

(2,330 words)

Author(s): Vit Bubenik
Abstract During the period of Hellenistic Greek we witness the rise and spread of numerous periphrastic formations in the verbal system, specifically in the imperfective aspect (Present and Imperfect) and in the perfect (Perfect and Pluperfect). These innovations were due to language-internal (morphological transparency of notionally complex categories) and external factors (the contact with Coptic in Egypt, Hebrew and Aramaic in Palestine and Syria, and other languages in newly settled areas of Asia Minor).   1. Introduction During the period of Hellenistic Greek we…
Date: 2013-11-01

Greek and Arabic (Early Contacts)

(2,245 words)

Author(s): Vit Bubenik
Abstract Our direct documentation of Arabic in pre-Islamic centuries is limited to the inscriptions in Early North Arabic, which does not allow us to study language contact phenomena as is the case with other Semitic and Hamitic peoples who lived within the states of the Seleucids and the Ptolemies. During the Hellenistic period about twenty Greek loanwords were for certain borrowed into Arabic via Aramaic and Middle Persian, and during the post-Islamic centuries numerous Greek words were adopted…
Date: 2013-11-01

Passive

(3,113 words)

Author(s): Vít Bubeník
1. Morphology The finite passive is formed two ways in Arabic: internally (the apophonic passive) and externally (formed by a prefix). The apophonic passive displays the vowel sequence u – i instead of a – a or a – i of its active counterpart in the perfect. In the imperfect, the apophonic passive uniformly displays the vowel a instead of i/u (as the second vowel), and all the forms are inflected with the u-series of the prefixes: (1) perfect imperfect I faʿala fuʿila yafʿa/i/ulu yufʿalu II faʿʿala fuʿʿila yufaʿʿilu yufaʿʿalu IV ʾafʿala ʾufʿila yufʿilu yufʿalu The apophonic system ‘leaks’…

Inflectional Classes

(1,449 words)

Author(s): Vit Bubenik
Abstract Based on the shape of their stems, three nominal classes are distinguished in Greek morphology: thematic ā-stems (and *ja-stems), thematic o-stems and athematic stems (ending in consonants and in the high vowels -i and - u). 1. Classification Based on the shape of their stem, three nominal classes are distinguished in Greek morphology: thematic ā-stems, thematic o-stems and athematic stems (ending in consonants and in the high vowels -i and - u). Their subcategories are as follows: I. ā-stems (and * ja-stems) 1. ā/a is found through the whole paradigm 2. ā/a is changed to ē in …
Date: 2013-11-01

Verbal System (Tense, Aspect, Mood)

(5,755 words)

Author(s): Vit Bubenik
Abstract The present treatment recognizes an essential dichotomy of synthetic versus analytic morphology and argues for a strict separation of tense and aspect. Traditional morphological categories are linked with semantic categories: present  and imperfect with Imperfective, aorist with Perfective, and perfect and pluperfect with Perfect / Retrospective. Morphological encoding of these categories is discussed in terms of several dichotomies: thematic versus athematic inflection, primary vs. seco…
Date: 2013-11-01

Attitudes to Language

(4,060 words)

Author(s): Vit Bubenik | Emilio Crespo
Abstract This entry brings together various pieces of information (literary and inscriptional evidence, statements by the philosophers and rhetoricians, the works of lexicographers and grammarians) about ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ language attitudes in Classical, Hellenistic and Roman Greece. Starting with the establishment of the Attic-Ionic Koine as the ‘high’ variant, we will examine the functional reduction of the status of the ancient dialects and the rise of diglossia; the pre-Christian Hell…
Date: 2014-01-22