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15. Medicine

(6,654 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 2, The post-Classical Period of Islamic Literature, from ca. 400/1000 until ca. 656/1258 previous chapter | German edition 1. Abu ’l-Faraj ʿAbdallāh b. al-Ṭayyib al-Jāthalīq al-ʿIrāqī, d. 435/1043. Ibn al-Qifṭī 223, al-Bayhaqī, Tatimma 27, Barhebraeus, Mukhtaṣar (Beirut) 330, Nāma ʾi dānishwarāni Nāṣirī I, 224. 4. Tafsīr Kitāb al-qaṭāgūriyās li-Arisṭūṭālīs fi ’l-manṭiq, Cairo2 I, 246.—5. Tafsīr Arisṭātālis fi ’l-faḍīla ( περì ἀρετῆς), translated from the Syriac Cat. Berl. Syr. I, 328, no. 88, 25.—6. Tafsīr …

9. Rumelia and Anatolia

(15,125 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition Together with their political power, the central lands of the Ottoman Empire also gained a certain intellectual ascendancy over the rest of the Muslim world. In Istanbul, which was from then on regarded as the capital of Islam, scholars from all countries TIocked together. Even though they generally remained only long enough to secure…

9. Minor Poets

(488 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition 1. Abū Dhuʾayb Khuwaylid b. Khālid al-Qaṭīl was the most important poet of the Hudhayl tribe (see Suppl. I, 42). He took part in the wars of conquest, went with ʿAbdallāh b. Saʿd to Africa in the year 26/646, and died some years later in Egypt while he and |⁴² ʿAbdallāh b. al-Zubayr were on their way to the caliph ʿUthmān to inform him of the conquest of Carthage. His five sons had died one year before him in Egypt of the plague and are bewailed by him in a song of mourning. |³⁷ Agh. V…

8. The Rajaz Poets

(397 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 3, The Period of the Umayyads previous chapter | German edition While in pagan times the rajaz (Suppl. I, 22) had only been used in improvisations, under the Umayyads it received special attention from some poets, particularly as a way of honing their qaṣīda technique. They sought to compensate for the simplicity of the rajaz metre by embellishing it with rather obscure expressions. |⁶⁰ Indeed, the two most important representatives of this movement are rightly seen as having enriched the Arabic lexicon…

Chapter 2. Iraq and al-Jazīra

(7,401 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|¹⁹⁹ In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 1, From Mongol Rule Until the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in the Year 1517 previous chapter | German edition 1 Poetry and Rhymed Prose 1. Shams al-Dīn Maʿadd b. (Muḥammad) Naṣrallāh b. Rajab al-Jazarī b. al-Ṣayqal, d. 701/1301. Suyūṭī, Bughya 395 (undated). Al-Maqāmāt al-Zayniyya, 50 maqāmas, composed in 672/1273, dedicated to the Juwaynī family (see Ta ʾrīkhi Jahāngushā I, LII, n. 2), read: Br. Mus. 669, additionally Köpr 4273, Fātiḥ 4111 ( MSOS XV, 21, MFO V, 502), Āṣaf., II, 1524,45. 3. Ṣafī al-Dīn Abu ’l-Maḥā…

Chapter 3. North Arabia

(11,721 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition 1 Poetry 1. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Zamzamī al-Shāfiʿī ʿIzz al-Dīn, muftī of the Shāfiʿīs in the Hijaz, d. 976/1568. Al-ʿAydarūsī, al-Nūr al-sāfir 320/4. 1. Dīwān additionally Cairo2 III, 131.—3. al-Qaṣaṣ al-ḥaqq fī madḥ khayr al-khalq, completed on 3 Dhu ’l-Ḥijja 942/25 May 1536 in Hijrat al-Jirāf near Ṣanʿāʾ, on which a takhmīs, entitled Qaṣab al-saqb fī takhmīs al-Q. al-ḥ. …

Chapter 2. Al-Jazīra, Iraq, and Bahrain

(2,612 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition 1 Poetry 1a. In honour of Sulṭān al-Diyār al-Fārisiyya, Lord of Ḥuwayza and Zakiyya, Ayman b. ʿAbd al-Ḥusayn b. al-Malik al-Muḥsin ʿAbd al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAbd al-Muḥsin, Ḥasan b. ʿAlī al-Sanbāwī al-Mālikī al-Ḥimyarī composed: A qaṣīda, on which his son ʿAlī wrote a commentary in 963/1556 entitled Bughyat al-mufīd wa-bulghat al-mustafīd fī sharḥ al-Qaṣīd, Paris 3240, Cairo2 III, 36. 3. Shihāb al-…

Chapter 12. Russia

(470 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 3, From the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt Until the British Occupation previous chapter | German edition It is well known that the Tatars of Russia, who, as a result of the environment in which they lived, came into contact with western thought sooner than their Asian brothers in the faith, had a strong influence on modern Turkish literature. But in the nineteenth century there were in their native region still some scholars who tried to leave their mark on the Muslim world as a whole by writing in Arabic. 1. In his Otuz aʿrāḍ (Kaza…

Chapter 10. The Maghreb

(13,054 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|⁶⁷⁵ In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition 1 Adab 1. Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan b. Masʿūd al-Yūsī al-Marrākushī was born in 1040/1630 in the territory of the Āyt Kāys, a clan of the Āyt Yūsī, to the south of Fez. He studied in Sijilmāsa, Darʿa, and Marrakesh. After that, he became an influential teacher at the Zāwiya of al-Dilāʾ. When Mulay al-Rashīd destroyed it in 1079/1668 he wen…

5. Iran and Tūrān

(13,980 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 1, From Mongol Rule Until the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in the Year 1517 previous chapter | German edition The old centres of Islamic culture in Iran and its neighbouring regions, in particularly Bukhara, Samarqand, and Herat, had suffered much more under the Mongol onslaught and its aftermath than Iraq. One emphemeral dynasty quickly followed another, and it was only at the end of this period that |¹⁹² the Safavid ruler Shāh Ismāʿīl was at least able to bring the whole of Iran under his sway. Even tho…

10. The Maghreb

(3,953 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition While the eastern lands of the Muslim world, though culturally stagnant, lived in relative peace under the Ottomans, North Africa gradually sank into barbarism. From the end of the fifteenth century onward, the Corsairs and their successsors—Turkish pashas, the beys of Tripoli, Tunis, and Algiers—became completely engrossed in their m…

10. Two Forgeries

(626 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|⁴³In volume 1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition 1. The manuscript Ref. 33 (Leipz. 505) contains, in addition to the two dīwāns just mentioned, another, supposedly by Abū Ṭālib, the uncle of Muḥammad, and the poems contained within it deal with relations between the Prophet and the Quraysh. Although some of the songs, whose tone is in accordance with the real situation in which Abū Ṭālib found himself, may actually be authentic, most of them were inve…

3. North Arabia

(3,321 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 1, From Mongol Rule Until the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in the Year 1517 previous chapter | German edition The Mongol onslaught never reached Arabia, and the lives of the herdsmen and bandits who made up the Bedouins of Najd remained undisturbed. Only rarely was the peace of the holy places of Mecca and Medina disturbed by disputes, usually between the ruling families of sharifs or as a result of attempts by Egyptian or Yemeni rulers to bring the area und…

2. The Qurʾān

(898 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition |³⁴In the earliest period of his religious activity, the Prophet emptied his soul in true ecstasy; in passionately emotional, and, for the most part, short and incoherent phrases in sajʿ, i.e. the rhyming prose of the kāhin. Later, when he transformed himself more and more from an ecstatic into a preacher, reciting his admonitions in long phrases that were often adorned with stories from the Old Testament and the Haggada, he con…

III Division of the History of Arabic Literature

(538 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|⁷In volume 1 | Introduction previous chapter | German edition When Arab philologists separated the history of the poetry of their people into the two periods of the jāhiliyya1 (pre-Islamic time) and Islam, this was not to disparage the former in an act of religious self-conceit. Quite the opposite, in fact, for its pre-Islamic exponents were regarded as unsurpassable models, and pedantecism often went so far that a poet whose achievement was highly regarded was nevertheless belittled merely because he was born after Muḥammad.2 For this reason they created the intermediary class of the m…

10. Pseudo-ʿAlid Literature

(1,422 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition Of the Dīwān attributed to Abū Ṭālib there is also a modern copy in Cairo2 III, 115. Sharḥ Lāmiyyat Abī Ṭālib by ʿAlī Fahmī al-Mūstārī, Istanbul 1327. |⁷⁴ 2. A large number of the verses attributed to ʿAlī were known to the ancient philologists (see al-Marzubānī, Muʿjam 279 ff.); it seems that Ibn Qutayba, ʿUyūn 2 III, 5, 17 (see also Ṭabarī, Tafsīr VI, 110) knew a Dīwān ʿAlī. Al-Zamakhsharī, on the other hand, is said to have recognised only two verses as au…

7. Fiqh

(19,709 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition Apart from legal norms derived from the Qurʾān and prophetic ḥadīth, and whose knowledge constituted the essence of ʿilm, there was, from early Islam onward, an interest in a separate review of questions that could not be decided on the basis of these sources alone. This is how fiqh emerged, whose results, the raʿy of the jurisconsult, lay claim to normative power. This effort began in early Umayyad times in Medina, w…

7. India

(2,580 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition As part of a general increase in Islamic culture, Mongol rule in India also advanced Arabic literature, even though it took a backseat to literature in Persian as it was mainly limited to theology. It was only on the west coast, in Gujarat and Malabar, which were in regular contact with South Arabia and the Hijaz, that it gained increased importance. 1 Philology 3. Aḥmad b. Abi ’l-Ghayth b. Mughl…

2. Rhymed Prose and Stylistics

(2,225 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 2, The Post-Classical Period of Islamic Literature from ca. 400/1000 until ca. 656/1258 previous chapter | German edition 1. Abu ’l-Walīd Aḥmad b. ʿAbdallāh b. Ghālib b. Zaydūn al-Makhzūmī was born in 394/1003 in Cordova where, being from a good family, he soon gained a prominent role. He won the love of Wallāda, the witty and emancipated daughter of the Umayyad caliph al-Mustakfī billāh, who had been murdered in 416/1025.1 This love raised the suspicions of the ruler of Cordova, Abu ’l-Ḥazm Jawhar, who …

13. Mathematics

(3,126 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|²¹⁵In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition L.P.E.A. Sédillot, Matériaux pour servir à lʼhistoire comparée des sciences mathématiques chez les Grecs et les Orientaux, 2 vols., Paris 1845/9. |²³⁹M. Cantor, Vorlesungen über Geschichte der Mathematik, vol. I, Leipzig 1880, 593/700. H.P.J. Renaud, Additions et corrections à Suter, Isis XVIII, 1932, 166/88. Aldo Mieli, La Science Arabe et son rôle dans lʼévolution scientifique mondiale, avec quelques addit…
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