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D̲h̲irāʿ

(1,013 words)

Author(s): Hinz, W.
, originally the part of the arm from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger, then the measure of the cubit, and at the same time the name given to the instrument for measuring it. The legal cubit is four handsbreadths ( ḳabḍa = index finger, middle finger, ring finger, and little finger put together), each of six fingerbreadths ( aṣbaʿ = middle joint of the middle finger) each the width of six barley corns ( s̲h̲aʿīra ) laid side by side. A considerable number of different cubits were in common use in Islam. Roughly speaking they can be grouped ar…

Farsak̲h̲

(276 words)

Author(s): Hinz, W.
, Persian measure of distance on a time basis, from the Parthian word * frasak̲h̲ , which came into Armenian as hrasak̲h̲ , into Syrian as pars e ḥā , to continue in both Arabic and modern Persian as farsak̲h̲ . Beside this, there is also the modern Persian farsang , derived from the Middle Persian frasang , the Old Persian * parāt̲h̲anga , to be found in Herodotus and Xenophon as παρασάγγης. Originally the distance which could be covered on foot in an hour, or ‘marching mile’, this developed (presumably as early as Sāsānid times) into a standard measure of distance. Herodotus takes the parasang to be 30 stadia, though it must be borne in mind that he refers not to the Attic, but to the Babylonian-Persian stadium of 198 m. Thus the Old Persian parasang would be a distance of 5.94 km.; this, however, only for the cavalry. The foot-soldiers’

Farsak̲h̲

(306 words)

Author(s): Hinz, W.
, mesure de distance persane basée sur une notion de temps, du mot parthe * frasak̲h̲, qui donna en arménien hrasak̲h̲, en syriaque pars* ḥā, et qui continua sa carrière en arabe et en persan modern…

Ḏh̲irāʿ

(963 words)

Author(s): Hinz, W.
, à l’origine partie du bras depuis le coude jusqu’à l’extrémité du majeur, puis mesure, la coudée et, en même temps, nom de l’instrument servant à la mesurer. Légalement, une coudée contient quatre largeurs de main ( ḳaḅḍa = index, majeur, annulaire et auriculaire placés l’un près de l’autre), équivalant chacune à six doigts ( aṣbaʿ = phalange moyenne du majeur), le doigt étant égal à six grains d’orge ( s̲h̲aʿīra