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Ḥesbân Ostracon A2 (3.85)

(397 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Accounts; Ammonite Ostraca from Ḥesbân Commentary This ostracon, discovered in 1974, is a body sherd from a heavy storage jar. Its maximum dimensions are 8.×.4 cm. It was, however, originally larger than its present version as evidenced by a modern break along its top. The text is a list of goods, written in Ammonite cursive script.1 The ostracon is in the Amman Archaeological Museum, Ḥesbân No. H74.2092.2 It has been dated paleographically to ca. 575 bce.3 Ḥesbân Ostracon A2 (3.85) Subject: N…

Kub 15.1 (CTH 584.1) (3.36)

(1,018 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Accounts; Votive Records Kub 15.1 ( CTH 584.1) (3.36) (i.1–11)1 Ḫebat of the city Uda. Dream of the queen. When …, the queen in the dream vowed to Ḫebat of Uda as follows: “If you, O goddess, my lady, will preserve the life of His Majesty, i.e., you will not allow him to come to harm, I will make for Ḫebat a gold statuette, and I will make for her a gold rosette, and they shall call it ‘Ḫebat’s rosette.’ I will also make a gold toggle pin for your breast, and they shall call it ‘the goddess’s toggle pin.’ ” ( i.12–14) D…

Semitic Slaves on a Middle Kingdom Estate (3.11)

(1,238 words)

Author(s): Ritner, Robert K.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Egyptian Archival Documents; Accounts Commentary In active use for about 90 years, this Theban papyrus contains a series of administrative documents concerning servant laborers from the reign of Amenemhet III to that of Sebekhotep III. In the reign of the latter king, two insertions established the woman Senebtisy’s right of ownership to ninety-five household workers, whose names, nicknames, occupations and totals are listed in four columns on the verso. …

Ammonite Ostraca from Ḥesbân (3.WS.C.2)

(383 words)

Author(s): Aufrecht, Walter E.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Accounts Commentary Between 1968 and 1978, the Tell Ḥesbân excavations produced eight ostraca with writing in the cursive Ammonite or Aramaic scripts.1 Four of these, A3, A4, A5 and A6, are lists of names; two, A7 and A8, are graffiti; and two, A1 and A2, are accounts presented below.2 2. Ammonite Ostraca from Ḥesbân Notes^ back to text1. The Ḥesbân ostraca were published in the sequence of their discovery. Cross (1986; 2002) has rearranged the series in the order of their date: A1 (old #4 =  CAI …

Kbo 2.1 (CTH 509) (3.34)

(927 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Accounts; Cult Inventories; City Inventories Kbo 2.1 ( CTH 509) (3.34) Šuruwa (ii.9–20)1 The former state (of the cult in the city Šuruwa): four deities in all — one stela representing the Stormgod of Šuruwa, one stela representing the Sungoddess, one stela of Mt. Auwara, one stela of the spring Šinaraši. (The present state:) one iron bull-statue of one šekan in size (representing the Stormgod of Šuruwa), one silver stela of the Sungoddess, on which rays are depicted in silver, one club with a s…

From Büyükkale, Building A, Rooms 4–5 (3.38)

(480 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Accounts; Archive Shelf Lists From Büyükkale, Building A, Rooms 4–5 (3.38) Subject: 16:14–23; Judg 17:2 (B ii.3–4) [Tablet?: “When] (they perform) for IŠTAR of Mt. Amana the festival of the doves, the festival of lamentation, and the festival of birth (?)”1 ( B ii.5–7) [Tablet ?.] The ritual (lit. word) of Ammiḫatna, Mati and Tulpiya: “[If] they find some sacrilege in a holy temple, this is how they re-consecrate it.”2 ( B ii.8) [Tablet?]: “If the Great King has a fit of anger in Ḫattuša”. a  ( A ii.…

An Assyrian Horse List (3.128)

(831 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Accounts; Neo-Assyrian Commentary This tablet (× cm), with two columns on the front and two columns on the back, was discovered during the 1957–63 excavations of Nimrud (ancient Kalḫu) in an area at the southeastern corner of the lower city known as Fort Shalmaneser. The text is one of the administrative documents known more specifically as the Horse Lists.1 Apparently, it was a formal check list either preceding or following the actual muster lists, which were less carefully wri…

Village Tithe Payments at Ugarit (3.83)

(388 words)

Author(s): Heltzer, Michael
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Accounts; The Tithe in Ugarit Commentary Despite the fact that the text is in a damaged state, we see here payments to the authorities, which could be the tithe from a number of villages of the kingdom of Ugarit. The text is written in Akkadian and shows the tax (tithe) payments by the villages in kind: barley (flour), oxen and wine. Village Tithe Payments at Ugarit (3.83) 1´ [the village … kùr ]1 barley or (flour)2 2´ The village3 […] kùr barley (or flour), 1 [ox]4 3´ The village Araniya 2 kùr barley …

Semitic Functionaries in Egypt (3.12)

(453 words)

Author(s): Ritner, Robert K.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Egyptian Archival Documents; Accounts Commentary Following the Hyksos Period, occasional appearances of Semitic names on funerary stelae from the Nile valley attest to the Egyptianization of resident Asiatic servants and functionaries. From the Amarna Period, a Berlin stela (14122) depicts a Syrian soldier Trwrʿ drinking beer through a bent straw with the assistance of a servant in the company of his wife, “the housewife ʾIʾirbwrʿʾ.” The high official Tut…

From Büyükkale, Building E (3.40)

(317 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Accounts; Archive Shelf Lists From Büyükkale, Building E (3.40) (iii.2–3) “When they give [a festival (?)] in Šapinuwa to [the Stormgod (?)] in the third year.” ( iii.4) “When [they draw] from the road the Mother goddesses of the (king’s?) body.” ( iii.5–6) “When they celebrate the Spring Festival in Kulella for the Stormgod of Kul[ella].” ( iii.7–9) The word of Kantuzzi[li, Chief of the] priests (and) Prince: “When they pour […], and they call a little […], how they put down [……

Ophel Ostracon (3.86)

(927 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Accounts; Hebrew Ostraca Commentary This fragmentary ostracon (× cm) was discovered during excavations on the Ophel (area south of the temple mount in Jerusalem) by J. G. Duncan in 1924, although in an unstratified context. It can be dated on palaeographic grounds to the end of the seventh or the beginning of the sixth century bce. While the ostracon appears to have contained eight lines, the left side of the inscription and lines 4–7 are no longer legible. Moreover, some of …

Administrative Record (AT 457) (3.126)

(492 words)

Author(s): Hess, Richard S.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Accounts; Alalakh Commentary This Level IV text contains a list of “citizens” from Taya. More than sixty lines list individuals and their place of origin. The places, where they can be identified, appear to be located in the regions around Alalakh and Aleppo. Several place names recur. One group, Akubia, Mudue and Paḫliš, occur together in AT 457 and two other administrative texts,  AT 223 and  AT 343. The personal names can be analyzed according to the languages of the various ancient N…

The BALA-contributions for One Month (3.144B)

(173 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Sumerian Archival Documents; Accounts; A Sumerian Amphictyony The BALA-contributions for One Month (3.144B) (1–2) 1 fatted ox (for) Ninsun, the evening of the first day of the month,1 (3–5) 2 fatted oxen, the evening of the second day of the month, 1 fatted ox, the evening of the third day of the month, (for) Enki-nin-ul-íl,2 (6–8) 1 fatted ox, (for) Ulmashitum, 1 fatted ox (for) Annunitum, the evening of the seventeenth day of the month, (9–10) 1 fatted ox (for) Ninhursag-nubanda, the evening of the twentieth day of the month: (11–1…

From Büyükkale, Building A, Rooms 1–2 (3.37)

(299 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Accounts; Archive Shelf Lists From Büyükkale, Building A, Rooms 1–2 (3.37) Subject: 1 Sam 28:8–14 (i.18–20) One tablet, whose composition is not complete, entitled “[If/When …] his zi’s are constantly … -ing, this incantation is intended for him. The word of Ḫutupi, the physician.” The second tablet (on which the composition would have been completed) is missing. ( i.21–22) Tablet Two of (the Ritual for) the Tutelary Deity of the Hunting Bag,1 containing the completion (of the composition) —…

The Tithe In Ugarit (3.WS.C.1)

(84 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Accounts 1. The Tithe In Ugarit The tithe in Ugarit is known from legal and economic documents dating from the fourteenth century to the beginning of the twelfth century bce. The Akkadian term for tithe in Ugarit is ma-ʾa-ša-ru or êšrêtu (cf. Hebrew maʿaśer). [These two documents should, strictly speaking, appear with the Akkadian contracts ( COS COSB.3.107–110) and accounts ( COS COSB.3.125–126) respectively. WWH]

Land Grant Along with Tithe Obligations (3.82)

(199 words)

Author(s): Heltzer, Michael
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Accounts; The Tithe in Ugarit Land Grant Along with Tithe Obligations (3.82) From the present day1 Niqmadu, son of Ammistamru king of Ugarit2 gave (donated) the village3 Uḫnappu to Kar-Kushuḫ, son of Ana[nu] and to Apapa, the king’s daughter, with its tithe (êšrêtu) with its custom-duties (miksu)4 with its gifts (širku). Nobody shall raise claims concerning Uḫnappu against Kar-Kushuḫ and Apapa and against the sons of Apapa. He (the king) donated Uḫnappu.…

List of Hapiru Soldiers (AT 180) (3.125)

(584 words)

Author(s): Hess, Richard S.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Accounts; Alalakh Commentary This is a representative of many lists from Alalakh that record the names of conscripts to serve in various parts of the military of Alalakh. This Level IV text introduces ḫāpiru-soldiers. The ḫāpiru, although regarded as enemies of society in texts from Amarna and elsewhere in the second millennium bce, serve in key administrative roles in Level IV of Alalakh. There are diviners ( AT 182 line 16) and governors ( AT 182 line 13) who are ḫāpiru. In this text, li…

Ḥesbân Ostracon A1 (3.84)

(328 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Accounts; Ammonite Ostraca from Ḥesbân Commentary This ostracon, discovered in 1973, is from a body sherd of a large, rough storage jar. It measures 10.×.×.6 cm. The upper left side of the sherd is missing, but the right margin is intact. The surface is not smooth and contains large calcium grits, causing the pen strokes to be broad and sometimes distorted or blurred. The text is a record kept by a royal steward of the assignme…

Weights and Measures (3.145)

(215 words)

Author(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Sumerian Archival Documents; Accounts; A Sumerian Amphictyony Commentary Babylonian weights and measures find some echo in biblical metrology; cf. Powell 1987–90; 1992. 3. Weights and Measures (3.145) Subject: 1 Kgs 5:2; 2 Kgs 7:1 (1) 3 vessels of one large kor1  a  (2) 1 second-quality vessel2 (3) 7 one- seah vessels3  b  (4) for the stele of Enlil4 (5) from Inim-[…] (6) receipted by Nig-urum (7) in the month of (Umma’s) BALA-obligation.5 (8) Year after the year when the wall (against) the Amorites was built.6 (Seal impres…

Calendar Text (3.144A)

(195 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Sumerian Archival Documents; Accounts; A Sumerian Amphictyony Calendar Text (3.144A) (1–3) Month I, month II: turn of the governor of Girsu.2 (4–5) Month III: turn of the governor of Adab. (6–7) Month IV: turn of the governor of Marad. (8–9) Month V: turn of the governor of Kazallu. (break) (10´) [Month XIII:] turn of the governor of Girsu.3 (11´) Year that Enmahgal-anna the high priestess of Nanna was installed.4 Notes^ back to text1. The text was part of the collection of Hartford Theological Seminary (HTS) when first published; it is now part of the collection of the Horn Archaeological Museum of Andrews University, where it bears the accession number AUAM 73.3161; see L. T. Geraty apud Sigrist 1984:vi.^ back to text2. The names of the months of the imperial calendar have been converted to Roman numerals in this translation.^ back to text3. The restoration of the …
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