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List of subjects

(149 words)

Author(s): Worthington, Ian
Each testimonium or fragment in Brill’s New Jacoby has one or more “subjects” describing what the text is about. Here follows a complete list. Readers can use it to fill in a term in the search category “Subject Keyword” in the Advanced Search. For instance, an Advanced Search with the key word “Politics” will bring up all articles containing testimonia or fragments about politics. Most subjects contain lower level key words. For instance, “Anarchy” is subordinate to “Politics”. This is displayed as “politics: anarchy” over a fragment. For the Advanced Searc…

Carson, Sir Edward Henry

(338 words)

Author(s): Horne, John
Carson, Sir Edward Henry (February 9, 1854, Dublin – October 22, 1935; from 1921 Baron Carson of Duncairn), Minster (Kent), Anglo-Irish politician (British First Lord of the Admiralty). As a Protestant, Carson was a lifelong committed advocate of the union of Ireland with Great Britain. He began his career as a barrister, and eventually became a leading English Conservative politician. Carson led the Unionists in the north of Ireland during the Ireland Crisis of 1912, supporting their threat to oppose national autonomy for Ireland within the British Empire (Home Rule), if necessary by force of arms. When the Home Rule Bill was suspended during the war, Carson joined Asquith’s government in May 1915. However, he criticized the prime minister’s leadership as being too weak and resigned in October 1916. Two months later, he supported Lloyd George’s overthrow of Asquith. Carson was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty (minister of the navy) in 1917. His tenure was subject to intense criticism, in particular on account of the late introduction of the convoy system as a defense against German submarines. He was replaced in July 1917 by Sir Eric Geddes, but remained in the cabinet as minister w…

Gallwitz, Max von

(481 words)

Author(s): Afflerbach, Holger
Gallwitz, Max von (May 2, 1852, Breslau [modern Wrocław] – April 18, 1937, Naples), German general. The son of a sergeant, Gallwitz served as a volunteer in the Franco-Prussian War. He later made his career in the General Staff and in the Prussian War Ministry. He was appointed divisional commander in 1905, inspector of the field artillery in 1911, and raised to the nobility in 1913. Gallwitz was commander of the Guard Reserve Corps when the war broke out; one of his first tasks was the capture of the fortress of Namur. As early as August 1914, the corps was transferred to the Eastern Front. Although it arrived too late to take part in the Battle of Tannenberg, it participated in the subsequent operations against the Russian Second Army. In autumn 1914 Gallwitz conducted further operations in Russian Poland, Silesia, and Galicia. On February 9, 1915, he became the commander of the army group that carried his name in southern Poland. In July, he assisted General Mackensen during the latter’s advance through Galicia. He was then given command of the newly formed Twelth Army, which succeeded in capturing over 110,000 Russian soldiers in the further course of the campaign. On the eve of the German-Austrian-Bulgarian offensive against Serbia, Gallwitz was appointed commander of the Eleventh Army on September 30, 1915. He was finally transferred to the Western Front in March 1916 and placed in command of the attacking forces on the west bank of the Meuse facing Verdun. Gallwitz subsequently became commander of the Second Army and of the Army Group Gallwitz (First and Second Armies). It was assigned the task of repelling the attacks on the Somme. After the creation of the Army Group Crow…

National Socialism

(2,472 words)

Author(s): Krumeich, Gerd
National Socialism The first industrialized mass war had considerable effects on political and social relationships, and on the mentality of people. Italian Fascism and German National Socialism owe their particular characteristics and their legitimization to the First World War, described by Eric J. Hobsbawm as a “machine for brutalizing the world.” By his own testimony, Hitler himself was a “son of the war.” In repeated references to the war in Mein Kampf and in numerous statements and documented conversations ( Hitler’s Table Talks), Hitler returned time and again to his p…

Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia

(545 words)

Author(s): Lindemann, Mechthild
Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia (May 18, 1868, Tsarskoye Selo [Puschkin] – July 16, 1918, Yekaterinburg [murdered]), Tsar of Russia from 1894–1917. Nicholas saw his lifelong, God-given mission to be the preservation of his autocratic power so as to pass it on, undiminished, to his successor. He was strengthened in this point of view by the Tsarina Alexandra Fjodorovna. He thus did not feel authorized to yield to the demands of society’s elites for a voice and participation in his political authority. Nic…

Internment

(1,392 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Uta
Internment During the World War, the notion of in…

Imperialism, Nationalism and the First World War in India

(8,519 words)

Author(s): Das, Santanu
Das, Santanu - Imperialism, Nationalism and the First World War in India Keywords: empire | First World War | imperialism | India | Nationalism | nationalist leaders | sepoys | Western Front ISFWWS-Keywords: India | The French and British Empires | Politics | Western Front | Experience of combat | Published memoirs and biographies Abstract: This article explores the relationship between empire, India and the First World War, by examining both the responses to the war within India, and the experience of the sepoys in the Western Front. In …

Bulgaria

(1,164 words)

Author(s): Höpken, Wolfgang
Bulgaria In the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 Bulgaria had not been able to fulfill its hopes of creating an “ethnographic” Bulgaria that would include Macedonia, parts of Thrace and the Dobrudja. In the 1913 Treaty of Bucharest it was moreover forced to concede to its neighbors practically all the territory it had captured in the First Balkan War of 1912. The outbreak of the First World War seemed to offer a new opportunity for the military realization of a “Greater Bulgaria,” a dream pursued since t…

Grey, Sir Edward

(405 words)

Author(s): Winter, Jay
Grey, Sir Edward (April 25, 1862, Fallodon, County of Northumberland – September 7, 1933, Fallodon; from 1916 First Viscount Grey of Fallodon), British politician. Grey was foreign secretary from 1905 to 1916, and chief architect of Britain’s foreign policy before the war. After studying at Balliol College, Oxford, he was elected to the House of Commons in 1885 as Liberal member of parliament for the constituency of Berwick-upon-Tweed. Grey retained this seat for his entire political career. As par…

Mobile Warfare

(1,059 words)

Author(s): Pöhlmann, Markus
Mobile Warfare A form of warfare which seeks to bring about a military decision through the tactical movement of forces for the purpose of achieving advantageous territorial concentrations without having to rely on fortified positions at all times. At the beginning of the war in 1914 the military doctrines and operational plans of all belligerent powers were based on mobile warfare. In the first instance these offensive operations were motivated by the strategic and economic objective of ensuring …

New Jerusalems: Sacrifice and Redemption in the War Experiences of English and German Military Chaplains

(12,828 words)

Author(s): Porter, Patrick
Porter, Patrick - New Jerusalems: Sacrifice and Redemption in the War Experiences of English and German Military Chaplains Keywords: Religion | Culture | Legacy | Politics | Germany | Britain | Society | Home fronts ‛Warfare and Belligerence’ Pierre Purseigle, Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2005 e-ISBN: 9789047407362 DOI: 10.1163/9789047407362.005 © 2005 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Porter, Patrick

Delbrück, Hans

(333 words)

Author(s): Cornelissen, Christoph
Delbrück, Hans (November 11, 1848, Bergen [Rügen] – July 14, 1929, Berlin), German historian and political commentator. Delbrück had become known before 1914 as an advocate both of Germany’s world role, and of internal and socio-political reform. Politically, the historian was identified with the Free Conservative Party. Appointed to Berlin University as successor to Heinrich von Treitschke in 1896, he achieved particular distinction with his four-volume History of Warfare in the Context of Political History 1900–1920 ( Geschichte der Kriegskunst im Rahmen der politische…

Neutral States

(688 words)

Author(s): Hoff, Henning
Neutral States States that do not participate in a war. The legal status “neutral” implies the right and the duty to pursue corresponding policies. The consequence thereof is a foreign policy that avoids any more or less explicit alignment in the international conflicts that occur in times of peace. Six European states adhered to various forms of neutrality for the entire duration of the war. The monarchs of the Scandinavian states Denmark (Christian X), the sovereign territory of which also inclu…

Dadaism

(499 words)

Author(s): Jürgens-Kirchhoff, Annegret
Dadaism Protest movement led by artists, writers, and intellectuals who first spoke up from their Swiss exile in 1916 with the foundation of the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich. “Dada” was a term denoting anything that no longer wished to be associated with the World War and its devastating consequences, and with an arts and culture movement that had been unable to prevent the disaster. Hugo Ball, Hans Arp, Marcel Janco, Tristan Tzara, Richard Huelsenbeck, Hans Richter, and others were among the first…

Huts, Demobilisation and the Quest for an Associational Life in Rural Communities in England after the Great War

(9,031 words)

Author(s): Grieves, Keith
Grieves, Keith - Huts, Demobilisation and the Quest for an Associational Life in Rural Communities in England after the Great War Keywords: Britain | Society | Soldiers and Combat | Legacy | Home fronts | Politics ‛Warfare and Belligerence’ Pierre Purseigle, Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2005 e-ISBN: 9789047407362 DOI: 10.1163/9789047407362.010 © 2005 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Grieves, Keith

Naval Cabinet ( Marinekabinett )

(353 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Naval Cabinet ( Marinekabinett ) The German Naval Cabinet was founded on April 1, 1889, as a joint military-civilian bureau to handle the human resources tasks of the naval officer corps. The new cabinet was placed under the initial leadership of Naval Captain Freiherr Gustav von Senden-Bibran. Candidates for the top command levels of the German navy were chosen in full accordance with the recommendations of the chief of the Naval Cabinet, who enjoyed direct access to the Kaiser. Accordingly the cabinet chief bore the respons…

Heroic Sacrifice, Myth of

(791 words)

Author(s): Hüppauf, Bernd
Heroic Sacrifice, Myth of The word Opfer (‘victim’) has two different connotations in the German language. One can make an Opfer, a ‘sacrificial offering,’ by sacrificing a victim to the gods, and in extreme cases a human being can offer himself in sacrifice. In its other connotation, a person can become the passive victim or ‘target’ of fate, whether from decisions made by others or from unknown circumstances. In both connotations the word has been extensively used in the literature and public debates on the World War. This suggests that the word…

Reichsbund Jüdischer Frontsoldaten

(289 words)

Author(s): Sieg, Ulrich
Reichsbund Jüdischer Frontsoldaten Reich Federation of Jewish Front Soldiers. Founded in early 1919 by Captain Leo Löwenstein, this veterans’ organization worked primarily to counter the disparagement of Jewish World War patriotism. The organization’s local chapters quickly gained a following, especially among Jewish liberals. During the Kapp Putsch of 1920 and the Berlin Scheunenviertel ( Jewish Quarter) Riot of 1923, members defended the Jewish residents against Antisemitic attacks. In 1925 the Reichsbund jüdischer Frontsoldaten counted as the …

Catholicism

(584 words)

Author(s): Haidl, Roland
Catholicism A view and attitude influenced by the Catholic Church and oriented to it, but not to be unconditionally equated with the Catholic Church as an institution. Within the German Reich before 1914 the Catholic Church, with just 40% of all Christian believers, constituted a political minority within the society of the Reich and was especially influential in the Center Party. The World War threw Catholicism in the warring European states into an insoluble dilemma. On the one hand, the Catholic Church maintained its claim to universalism. It was long …

Expressionism

(436 words)

Author(s): Jürgens-Kirchhoff, Annegret
Expressionism The dominant modernist movement in German literature and art prior to the First World War (with the artistic groups Die Brücke and Der Blaue Reiter). Although the German Expressionists had formulated their artistic manifesto in critical opposition to Wilhelmine society, the majority of them celebrated the outbreak of the First World War. They shared the commonly felt fervor of August 1914, hoping that the war would “cleanse the Augean stable of old Europe” (Franz Marc). Regardless of political and economic…
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