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Deployment Plans

(1,557 words)

Author(s): Bourne, John
Deployment Plans Deployment plans were plans for readying the mobilized units of a land army. To what degree the warring states of World War I actually sought after this conflict is one of the most intensively researched, and most sharply contended subjects of 20th century historiography. It is agreed, however, that most powers had worked out detailed mobilization and attack plans in case of war. These, they also realized to a greater or lesser degree when war broke out in August 1914. The war plans of the German Reich are customarily referred to as the Schlieffen Plan, even though his successor, Helmuth von Moltke (the Younger), made considerable changes to Schlieffen’s final version. The Franco-Russian Alliance of 1892–1894 presented Germany with a nightmare vision of a war on two fronts. Now, instead of seeking to avoid a war on two fronts, the general staff was eager to win such a war. The attempt to untie this Gordian knot now became the focus of all military planning by …

Lethal Journey between Four Fronts: First World War Experiences of the Reichstag’s Deputies

(8,581 words)

Author(s): Patin, Nicolas
Patin, Nicolas - Lethal Journey between Four Fronts: First World War Experiences of the Reichstag’s Deputies ISFWWS-Keywords: Germany | Experience of combat | Published memoirs and biographies | Russian Front | Legacy | Politics | Western Front Other Fronts, Other Wars? Joachim Bürgschwentner, Matthias Egger and Gunda Barth-Scalmani , (2014) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2014 e-ISBN: 9789004279513 DOI: 10.1163/9789004279513_003 © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Patin, Nicolas

Giolitti, Giovanni

(430 words)

Author(s): Pöhlmann, Markus
Giolitti, Giovanni (October 27, 1842, Mondovì [Piedmont] – July 17, 1928, Cavour [Turin]), Italian politician who served as prime minister. One of the most influential Italian politicians of the prewar period, the liberal Giolitti practiced Realpolitik with a bureaucratic approach. He served as prime minister for five separate terms: 1892–1893, 1903–1905, 1906–1909, 1911–1914, and then 1920–1921. Indeed, the years from the turn of the century to 1914 are known in Italy as the “Giolitti Era.” During this period Giolitti ushered in…

The Junior Partner: Anglo-American Military Cooperation in World War I

(11,458 words)

Author(s): Grotelueschen, Mark E.
Grotelueschen, Mark E. - The Junior Partner: Anglo-American Military Cooperation in World War I Keywords: AEF operations | American Military operations | British leaders | war | Wilson's stature ISFWWS-Keywords: Military organisation of combat | Experience of combat | The United States of America | International Relations during the War | Peacemaking and Continued Conflict | Politics | Soldiers and Combat | Britain Abstract: This essay examines the connection between American military operations on the Western Front and the impact of those operati…

Holtzendorff, Henning von

(337 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Holtzendorff, Henning von (January 9, 1853, Prenzlau – June 7, 1919, Jagow [Uckermark]), German grand admiral. Holtzendorff entered the navy in 1869, took part in the war of 1870/1871, and in 1900 served as commander of a capital ship during the Boxer Rebellion. After various commands on land (commander in chief of the navy, chief of staff of the Baltic Division, commander of the dockyard at Danzig [Gdańsk]), from 1906 to 1909 he was commander of the First Squadron, and in 1910 took command of the …

Beneš, Edvard

(414 words)

Author(s): Hadler, Frank
Beneš, Edvard (May 28, 1884, Kožlany, Bohemia – September 3, 1948, Sezimovo Ústí, South Bohemian Region), Czechoslovak politician. Beneš was his country’s first minister of foreign affairs (1918–1935). In 1921–1922 he simultaneously held the office of prime minister before succeeding Tomáš Masaryk as president (1935–1938). From 1940 he headed the Czechoslovak government-in-exile in London and finally became president of Czechoslovakia following the renewal of the country in the wake of World War I…

Kipling, Rudyard

(455 words)

Author(s): Reimann, Aribert
Kipling, Rudyard (December 30, 1865, Bombay – January 18, 1936, London), English writer. This extraordinarily successful author was for his whole life a prominent advocate of the ideals of British imperialism. Liberal critics in particular associate him with the Victorian and Edwardian culture of imperial “jingoism,” or belligerent nationalism. Kipling spent his early childhood years (until 1871) in Lahore, India, the son of a museum curator, before being educated in English boarding schools. The …

Denikin, Anton Ivanovich

(351 words)

Author(s): Brand, Bettina
Denikin, Anton Ivanovich (December 16, 1872, near Warsaw – August 8, 1947, Ann Arbor), Russian general. Denikin trained as an officer from 1895 at the General Staff Academy in St. Petersburg, and was appointed to the general staff in 1902. After the outbreak of the World War, he served on the southwest front. For two years he was commander of the 4th Brigade of Fusiliers (called the “Iron Brigade,” from 1915 on a division). From September 1916 he was commanding general of the VIIIth Army Corps. The…

Gallieni, Joseph-Simon

(365 words)

Author(s): Krumeich, Gerd
Gallieni, Joseph-Simon (April 24, 1849, Saint-Béat [Haute-Garonne] – May 27, 1916, Versailles), French general and politician. Gallieni already had a long and impressive military career behind him when the First World War began. After taking part in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, he soon became probably France’s most celebrated colonial soldier. He was appointed commander in chief in French Sudan in 1886. In 1896 he was employed in the pacification of Madagascar. Back in France, Brigadier G…

Death in Freiburg, 1914–1918

(79 words)

Author(s): Chickering, Roger
Chickering, Roger - Death in Freiburg, 1914–1918 Keywords: Germany | Home fronts | Society | Politics | Aviation | Religion ‛Endangered Cities’ Marcus Funck and Roger Chickering, Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2004 e-ISBN: 9789047409812 DOI: 10.1163/9789047409812.009 © 2004 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Chickering, Roger

Armenians

(1,863 words)

Author(s): Gust, Wolfgang
Armenians…

“Suspicious Pacifists”: The Dilemma of Polish Veterans Fighting War during the 1920s and 1930s

(8,422 words)

Author(s): Eichenberg, Julia
Eichenberg, Julia - “Suspicious Pacifists”: The Dilemma of Polish Veterans Fighting War during the 1920s and 1930s Keywords: 1920s | CIAMAC | dilemma…

Finland

(2,352 words)

Author(s): Wegner, Bernd
Finland This small country (1910: 2.94 million inhabitants) located at the northeastern periphery of Europe entered the First World War as an autonomous grand duchy within the Russian Empire, and emerged from it an independent republic and parliamentary democracy. The process was not foreseeable, and by no means straightforward. Apart from the final months of the civil war, the sea change in the country’s status was primarily the result of external events – October Revolution, Peace of Brest-Litovsk – b…

Gerlach, Hellmut von

(485 words)

Author(s): Holl, Karl
Gerlach, Hellmut von (February 2, 1866, Mönchmotzelnitz [near Wohlau, Silesia] – August 1, 1935, Paris), German journalist, jurist, and politician. As a member of the German Reichstag from 1903 to 1907 (in informal affiliation with the Freisinnige Vereinigung [Free-minded Union]), and since the turn of the century a collaborator and later editor in chief of the Sunday newspaper Welt am Sonntag

Losing Manliness: Bohemian Workers and the Experience of the Home Front

(8,269 words)

Author(s): Kučera, Rudolf
Kučera, Rudolf - Losing Manliness: Bohemian Workers and the Experience of the Home Front ISFWWS-Keywords: Austria-Hungary | Masculinity | Home fronts | Society | Economy | Politics | Women and War Other Fronts, Other Wars? Joachim Bürgschwentner, Matthias Egger and Gunda Barth-Scalmani , (2014) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2014…

Pétain, Henri Philippe

(572 words)

Author(s): Becker, Jean-Jacques
Pétain, Henri Philippe (April 24, 1856, Cauchy-à-la-Tour [Département Pas-de-Calais] – July 23, 1951, Port-Joinville [L’Île d’Yeu]), French marshal. Pétain graduated from the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint- Cyr (Specialized Military School of St. Cyr) in 1876. In 1914, he actually was a colonel facing the end of his career as a professional soldier. Moreover, his def…

War Widows

(505 words)

Author(s): Rouette, Susanne
War Widows …

Interparty Committee of the Reichstag

(518 words)

Author(s): Mai, Gunther
Interparty Committee of the Reichstag A coalition committee formed by the political fractions of the Reichstag’s majority and uniting the German Central Party, the Progressive People’s Party, and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), and temporally also the National Liberal Party. The Interparty Committee of the Reichstag became an informal yet politically influential power factor that was acknowledged as such by the government. It was constituted on July 6, 1917, in the midst of the controversy over the constitutional and electoral reform as well as over war objectives and peace initiatives. Although the political fractions all agreed that the crisis should be exploited in order to strengthen the parliamentary system, their differing standpoints during the negotiations of the Reichstag’s Central Committee and Constitution Committee repeatedly prevented them from adopting a united stance toward the gover…

Changing Mutual Perceptions of China-Japan Relations in the 1910s in Chinese and Japanese Textbooks

(9,536 words)

Author(s): Rose, Caroline
Rose, Caroline - Changing Mutual Perceptions of China-Japan Relations in the 1910s in Chinese and Japanese Textbooks ISFWWS-Keywords:
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