Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Holzhausen, Jens" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Holzhausen, Jens" )' returned 51 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Hermeticism/Hermetism

(2,928 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Kurt | Holzhausen, Jens | Lory, Pierre | Blum, Paul Richard | Colpe, Carsten
[German Version] I. Literature – II. History of Influence I. Literature The literature that has come down to us under the name of the Greek-Egyptian god Hermes (Hermes Trismegistus) is not a unity, neither literarily nor in terms of content. Its beginnings reach back into the 3rd century bce to Egypt (III, 2), and its influence extends beyond the Arabic-Islamic and Christian-European Middle Ages into the 18th century (see II below). This literature has been divided into “popular” or “occult” and “scholarly” or “philosophical” writings. The …

Ophites

(159 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens
[German Version] The Ophites, a Gnostic Christian sect, are first mentioned in Clement of Alexandria’s Stromata (VII 17.108[2]). The name probably derives from their worship of the serpent in paradise, which conveys salutary knowledge of the transcendent God. Origen ( Cels. VI 24–38) attributes to the group the diagram cited by Celsus, but doubts that Ophites still exist (Hippolytus ignores the sect in Haer. VIII 20.3). Their spiritual father is said to have been Euphrates (called Perat in Hipp. Haer. V 13.9); they would curse Jesus. According to Theodoret, who equates the…

Theodotus the Gnostic

(152 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens
[German Version] Valentinian. The works of Clement of Alexandria include “Excerpts [ Epitomai] from Theodotus and the teachings of the so-called eastern school in the time of Valentinian”; it is hard to determine which sections are ascribed to Theodotus himself. Alongside the sections containing Clement’s own position, other material is generally ascribed to the Valentinians (Valentinianism). A parallel version of the Valentinian myth recorded by Irenaeus of Lyon ( Haer. I 1–8) does not mention its source (Clement Excerpta Theodoti 43.2–65). The passages ascribed to Theodo…

Menander

(147 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens
[German Version] Menander, a Gnostic from Samaria (Kapparetaia); taught in Syrian Antioch around the turn of the 1st and 2nd centuries ce. Justin ( 1 Apol. 26, 4) describes him as a pupil of Simon Magus and a magician. According to Irenaeus ( Haer. I 23.5), Menander swore that he could use his…

Valentinus and Valentinians

(10,908 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens
1. Sources and their Problems The Valentinian school represents the most important heretical Christian current of the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, whose traces are still evident as late as the 7th and 8th centuries. The name “Valentinians” is first found in Justin ( Dialogus cum Tryphone, 35, 6) and Hegesippus (in Eusebius, Hist…

Valentinus

(500 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Christian theologian and poet, 2nd cent. Christian theologian, probably from Egypt, taught in c. AD 140-160 in Rome ( cf. Iren. adv. haereses 3,4,3). He wanted, possibly, to become episcopus ( epískopos ), but was turned down (Tert. adv. Valentinianos 4,1 ff.); afterwards, he must have lived in Cyprus (Epiphanius, Panarion 31,7,2). Besides a few extant fragments from sermons and letters, a work entitled 'On the three natures' ( Perì triôn phýseōn) is known to have existed. V. apparently wrote psalms in verse form; a fragment (in Hippolytus,

Ptolemaeus

(19,876 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαῖος/ Ptolemaîos). Personal name meaning 'warlike' (not 'hostile'), first recorded in Hom. Il. 4,228; the name occurred in Macedonia in the 5th and 4th cents. BC, from where it spread to Thessaly, still in the 4th cent. (IG IX 2, 598). It became prominent with the Lagid dynasty, and became common, not only in Egypt, where it may at first have indicated solidarity …

Theosophia

(320 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] (Θεοσοφία; Theosophía). Title of a Christian work by an unknown writer (Severus [3] of Antioch, according to [2]) from the end of the 5th cent. AD. The title shows a connexion with Porphyrius' work Philosophy from Oracles, where he made theosophia (a blending of theologia and philosophia) a technical term, probably for the first time (fr. 303; 323; 340a Smith, cf. Porph. De abstinentia 2,45,4; 4,17,1); previously the adverb θεοσόφως/ theosóphōs was documented only in Clem. Al. Strom. 1,1 (17,3); later in Eusebius [7], Proclus [2], Damascius, pseudo-Dionysius [54] Areopagites. The 'Tübingen T.', an epitome of books 8-10 (with information on the content of the other books), is preserved in a single Tübingen MS (Mb 27, an apographon of a Strasbourg MS burned in 1870). Individual fragmen…

Severus

(1,402 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Σευῆρος; Seuêros). [German version] [1] Platonist, 2nd cent.? Platonist, probably 2nd cent. AD. He wrote a monograph On the soul [1. 80, 299; 2. 409-13, 428 f., 435 f.] and a commentary on Plato’s Timaeus [1. 52, 217 f.; 2. 407-9]. He appears in these works to be an original-minded, somewhat stoicizing interp…

Corpus Hermeticum

(2,148 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] A. Overview There had been a comprehensive body of writings in Egypt, produced in the name of the god  Hermes, who has been identified with the Egyptian god Thot (Theuth, Thout), the god of wisdom and the art of writing, since the Hellenistic period. The Corpus Hermeticum (CH) included not only the so-called technical writings of astrological, alchemistic, magic and medical content [1], but also religious and philosophical texts. There are 17 Greek treatises, the Lat. Asclepius (Ascl.) and 29 Greek excerpts (exc.) from the anthology of  Stobaeus (further …

Simon

(1,722 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Et al.
(Σίμων/ Símōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor in bronze from Aegina, c. 480-460 BC Sculptor in bronze from Aegina. S. participated with a horse and a charioteer in the votive offerings dedicated by Phormis at Olympia; accordingly, his period of artistic activity is around 480-460 BC. The base which belonged to it has been identified. A dog and an archer by S. (Plin. HN 34,90) probably formed a further group. …

Marsanes

(301 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] Title of a very fragmentarily preserved Gnostic text from Nag Hammadi (Codex X,1) in the Coptic language (Subakhmimic). The name Marsanes is also attested in the Anonymum Brucianum, in which M. appears alongside Nikotheus as a prophet of the highest truth [1. 235], and in Epiphanius (Adversus haereses 40,7,6) in the context of the description of the Archontes (here in the form Marsianes; Archontes [II]): he was translated to heaven and returned after three d…

Kore Kosmou

(550 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] Some extensive excerpts from the hermetic book with the title Kore Kosmou are preserved through Stobaeus (excerpts 23-26 in [1]; Hermetic writings). This name describes, probably in a deliberately puzzling way, the goddess Isis, either as ‘Pupil of the Eye of the World’ [8] or as ‘Maiden of the World’ cf. the name Poemandres). The author attempts to integrate the religion of Isis and Osiris into the hermetic tradition by representing both Egyptian gods as pupils of Her…

Heracleon [5]

(296 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ἡρακλέων; Hērakléōn) is considered the 'most famous' representative of the heretical Christian school of the Valentinians (Clem. Al. Strom. 4,71,1). He was active in the second half of the 2nd cent. AD, but it is not known where (Rome and/or Alexandria?). Apparently Hypomnḗmata were produced from his exegesis of John, which Origenes [2] cites in his commentary on John (48 fragments). In his interpretation, which also draws on other gospels, Paulus [II 2] and the Old Testament, there is a background cosmogonic myth. In it the world-creating d…

Iustinus

(1,495 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] I. I Eastern Roman general AD 518-527 (AD 518-527), emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, born a farmer…

Pan

(1,096 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] …

Zostrianus

(143 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ζωστριανός; Zōstrianós). Title of the longest text of the Nag Hammadi corpus (NHCod VIII,1, 1-132). Porphyry attests its use by the Roman Gnostics (Porph. Vita Plotini 16). Z. is a variant of the name Zarathustra (Zoroaster); the teachings of both are identified. The text relates Z.' journey to  heaven, leading through 'air-earth', the antítypoi of the aeons up to the highest, threefold mighty spirit. The journey involves frequent spiritual baptisms. The text was probably written in the first half of the 3rd cent. and it belongs to Sethianism. The adoption of Middle- and Neo-Platonic ideas is documented through a parallel in Marius [II 21] Victorinus (Mar. Vict. Adversus Arium 1,49 f.). Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) Bibliography J. H. Sieber (ed.), Nag Hammadi Codex VIII, 1991 (with Engl. transl.)  …

Poemandres

(517 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ποιμάνδρης/ Poimándrēs). Source of divine revelation in the first tract of the Corpus Hermeticum (= CH) which was named after him. Perhaps the Coptic connection p-eime nte-rē ('spiritual power of the sun god'), for which evidence is lacking, underlies the name, omitting the article before , thus being a paraphrase of the Egyptian god Thoth (cf. Psenprēs, 'son of Re'). The name corresponds to P.' description of himself: ho tês authentías Noûs, 'the spirit of the highest power' (CH I 1; cf. PGM XIII 258: Re as authéntēs). At the same time there is a …

Menander

(3,637 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Μένανδρος; Ménandros). [German version] [1] Joint strategos with Nicias, 414 BC The Athenians M. and Euthydemus [1], who were already in Sicily, were chosen as joint strategoi of Nicias towards the end of 414 BC, during the Sicilian Expedition, to support him until the relief expedition of Demosthenes [1] arrived (413) (Thucyd. 7,16,1; Plut. Nicias 20,2); re-elected 413/12 (Plut. Nicias 20,6-8; Thucyd. 7,69,4; Diod. 13, 13,2). Possibly identical with the M. who fought in Abydus in 409 (Xen. Hell. 1,2,16). He was
▲   Back to top   ▲