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Palaiphatos of Athens (44)

(7,373 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
This entry was prepared by René Nünlist and published on 1 April 2008. About this Historian Historian: Palaiphatos of Athens Jacoby number: 44 Attested works: Creation of the World, Birth of Apollo and Artemis, Utterances and Speeches of Aphrodite and Eros, Strife of Athena and Poseidon, Lock of Leto: T1; On Unbelievable Tales: T2; Histories of Cyprus, Delos, Attica and Arabia: T3, T3b; Egyptian Theology, Mythical Stories, Solutions to Mythical Stories, Synopses of the works of Simonides, Trojan History, Peculiar History: T4; Trojan History: F1 - F3bis, F5, F6, F6a; unknown: F4, F7 - F9(…

Zenodotos, Epitomes, Historical Commentaries (19)

(2,773 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
This entry was prepared by René Nünlist and published on 1 October 2007. About this Historian Historian: Zenodotos, Epitomes, Historical Commentaries Jacoby number: 19 Attested works: Historian's date: uncertain Historical focus: I. Mythological History ( Genealogy and Mythography) | B. Hellenistic Reference Works and Collections | Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 19 F 1 Source: Athenaios, Deipnosophists 10.2 (412a-b) Work mentioned: Source date: 2nd century AD Source language: Greek Fragment subject: mythology, greek - Library of Congress Textual base: Jacoby Athenaios, Deipno…

Nikanor, son of Hermeias (628)

(1,809 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
This entry was prepared by René Nünlist and published on 1 April 2007. About this Historian Historian: Nikanor, son of Hermeias Jacoby number: 628 Attested works: Historian's date: 2nd century AD Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | I. Egypt Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 628 T 1 Source: Suda, Lexikon, Νικάνωρ ὁ ῾Ερμείου Work mentioned: Source date: 10th century AD Source language: Greek Fragment subject: Textual base: Jacoby Suda, Lexikon, Νικάνωρ ὁ ῾Ερμείου᾽Αλεξανδρεύς, γραμματικός, γεγονὼς ἐπὶ ᾽Αδ…

Neoptolemos of Parion (702)

(2,228 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
This entry was prepared by René Nünlist and published on 1 April 2009. About this Historian Historian: Neoptolemos of Parion Jacoby number: 702 Attested works: Trichthonia: F2, Dionysiad: F3, On Forms of Wit: F5, Historian's date: 3rd century BC Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | VI. Bythinia Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 702 T 1 Source: Strabo, Geography, 13.1.19 Work mentioned: Source date: 1st century BC, 1st century BC – 1st century AD 1st century AD Source language: Greek Fragment subject: geography, …

Mimnermos of Smyrna (578)

(5,072 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
This entry was prepared by René Nünlist and published on 1 April 2009. About this Historian Historian: Mimnermos of Smyrna Jacoby number: 578 Attested works: Smyrneis: F1, Nanno: F2 , Nanno: F3 , uncertain: F4, Smyrneis: F5, unknown: F6, unknown: F7, uncertain: F8, unknown: F9, Historian's date: 7th century BC Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | B. Authors on Single Cities and Regions | LXX. Smyrna Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 578 F 1 Source: Scholia on Antimachos P. Mil. I. no. 17 col. II 27) p. 83 Wyss, 442 Matthwes Work mentioned: Smyrneis So…

Nikanor, son of Hermeias (628)

(1,795 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
This entry was prepared by René Nünlist and published on 1 October 2016. About this Historian Historian: Nikanor, son of Hermeias Jacoby number: 628 Attested works: Historian's date: 2nd century AD Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | I. Egypt Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 628 T 1 Source: Suda, s.v. Νικάνωρ ὁ ῾Ερμείου Work mentioned: Source date: 10th century AD Source language: Greek Source genre: linguistics - Library of Congress Fragment subject: Textual base: Jacoby Suda, s.v. Νικάνωρ ὁ ῾Ερμείου᾽Αλεξαν…

Zenodotos, Epitomes, Historical Commentaries (19)

(2,682 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
This entry was prepared by René Nünlist and published on 1 April 2018. About this historian Historian: Zenodotos, Epitomes, Historical Commentaries Jacoby number: 19 Attested works Epitomes: F1; Historical Commentaries: F2 Historian's date: uncertain Historical focus: I. Mythological History ( Genealogy and Mythography) | B. Hellenistic Reference Works and Collections | . Place of origin: Alexandria, Ephesos, Mallos (?) BNJ 19 F 1 Source: Athenaios 10.2 (412a-b) Work mentioned: Epitomes Source date: 2nd century AD Source language: Greek Source genre: Miscellaneous Anthologi…

Palaiphatos of Egypt (660)

(1,092 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
This entry was prepared by René Nünlist and published on 1 October 2016. About this Historian Historian: Palaiphatos of Egypt Jacoby number: 660 Attested works: Historian's date: uncertain Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | I. Egypt Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 660 T 1 Source: Suda, s.v. Παλαίφατος Work mentioned: Source date: 10th century AD Source language: greek Source genre: biography-to 500 - Library of Congress Fragment subject: biography-to 500 - Library of Congress Textual base: Jacoby Suda, s…

Palaiphatos of Egypt (660)

(1,101 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
This entry was prepared by René Nünlist and published on 1 October 2007. About this Historian Historian: Palaiphatos of Egypt Jacoby number: 660 Attested works: Historian's date: uncertain Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | I. Egypt Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 660 T 1 Source: Suda, Lexikon, - Παλαίφατος Αἰγύπτιος (ἢ ᾽Αθηναῖος) Work mentioned: Source date: 10th century AD Source language: Greek Fragment subject: biography-to 500 - Library of Congress Textual base: Jacoby Suda, Lexikon, - Παλαίφατος…

Servius (47)

(486 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
This entry was prepared by René Nünlist and published on 1 October 2008. About this Historian Historian: Servius Honoratus, Maurus Jacoby number: 47 Attested works: Trojan History: F1 Historian's date: uncertain Historical focus: I. Mythological History ( Genealogy and Mythography) | C. Monographs, Novels, Pseudographic Literature | Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 47 F 1 Source: Scholion rec. B* on Homer, Iliad 21.242 (Dindorf) Work mentioned: Trojan History Source date: various Source language: Greek Source genre: Commentaries--History and criticism - Library of Congress Fragme…

Telemachos

(438 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
[English version] (Τηλέμαχος). Einziger Sohn von Odysseus und Penelope (vgl. Telegonos). Wie oft spiegelt der Name des Sohnes (“Fernkämpfer”) ein Charakteristikum des Vaters wider [1]. In dessen Abwesenheit sieht der zwar wohlerzogene, aber unsichere und wenig initiative T. dem Treiben von Penelopes Freiern im wesentlichen machtlos zu, bis Athena in der Gestalt von Mentes [2] ihn zu forscherem Auftreten ermuntert (Hom. Od. 1,269-305). T. beruft - zum ersten Mal seit Odysseus' Auszug in den Krieg -…

Thersites

(209 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
[English version] (Θερσίτης). Griech. Troiakämpfer. In der ‘Ilias (Hom. Il. 2,211-277) ist Th. der körperlich mißgebildete (die entsprechende Beschreibung ist in der ‘Ilias einmalig) und zänkische Nörgler, der wegen seiner sarkastischen Bemerkungen allen verhaßt ist - zumal dem Achilleus [1] und dem Odysseus. Nachdem letzterer dem heimkehrwilligen Heer Einhalt geboten hat, attackiert Th. Agamemnon mit Argumenten, die bewußt an diejenigen des Achilleus (Hom. Il. B. 1) anknüpfen, aber auch diesen se…

Teichoskopie

(100 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
[English version] (τειχοσκοπία, “Mauerschau”). Bereits ant. (schol. Eur. Phoen. 88) Bezeichnung für die Ilias-Szene, in der Helene [1] Priamos von der troianischen Festungsmauer aus die wichtigsten griech. Heerführer (Agamemnon, Odysseus, Menelaos, Aias [1], Idomeneus) vorstellt (Hom. Il. 3,161-244, nachgeahmt u. a. von Eur. Phoen. 88-192). Der homer. Erzähler läßt Helena ein sich anderswo und zeitgleich abspielendes Geschehen wahrnehmen und dieses verbal Priamos (somit indirekt…

Thamyris

(143 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
[English version] (Θάμυρις, auch Θαμύρας/ Thamýras). Myth. Sänger aus Thrakien (vgl. Orpheus), der in menschlicher Selbstüberschätzung die Musen zum Wettkampf auffordert und natürlich verliert (zum Motiv: Marsyas [1], Niobe, Kapaneus). Zur Strafe nehmen sie ihm die Sangesgabe (wieder) weg und verstümmeln ihn (Hom. Il. 2,594-600, ohne dies genauer zu bestimmen; Hes. cat. 65 spricht von Blendung). Den gleichen Stoff wird Sophokles in seiner Trag. ‘Th. (TrGF 4 F 236-245) behandelt haben, in der der Dich…

Stentor

(94 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
[English version] (Στέντωρ, sprechender Name: “Brüller” [1]). Griech. Troiakämpfer, dessen gewaltige Stimme der von 50 Männern gleichkommt. In seiner Gestalt hält Hera den Griechen eine Standpauke (Hom. Il. 5,784-792). Selbst tritt S. nirgends auf. Diese “Lücke” wurde von der ant. Exegese durch gelehrte Spekulationen ergänzt (schol. AbT Hom. Il. 5,785): Er mußte sein Leben lassen, weil er Hermes zum Wettstreit im Schreien herausgefordert hatte (zum Motiv vgl. Thamyris), und ist der Erfinder der Kr…

Tereus

(113 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
[English version] (Τηρεύς). Myth. König aus Thrakien, heiratet Prokne und verbündet sich dadurch mit dem attischen König Pandion [1], dessen andere Tochter Philomele er vergewaltigt. Damit sie ihn nicht anzeigen kann, schneidet T. ihr die Zunge heraus. Sie stellt jedoch das Verbrechen am Webstuhl bildlich dar. Prokne rächt sich an ihrem Mann durch grausame Tötung des gemeinsamen Sohnes Itys. Als T. seinerseits Rache nehmen will, verwandeln alle drei sich in Vögel, T. in einen Wiedehopf, die Schwes…

Talthybios

(115 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
[English version] (Ταλθύβιος). Herold und Gefolgsmann des Agamemnon (Hom. Il. 1,320 f.), auf dessen Befehl er zusammen mit Eurybates [1] ohne Begeisterung bei Achilleus [1] das Streitobjekt Briseis abholt (ebd. 1,327-347). T. ist auch im Dienste aller Griechen tätig, etwa wenn er mit dem troianischen Herold Idaios [3a] den Zweikampf zw. Aias [1] und Hektor abbricht (ebd. 7,273-312); als allg. Griechen-Herold auch bei Euripides (Hec., Tro.), der den Gedanken des ‘Handlangers der Mächtigen wider Wil…

Thrinakie

(94 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
[English version] (Θρινακίη). Myth. Insel, in der Nähe von Skylla [1] und Charybdis (Hom. Od. 12,260 f.), auf der die Töchter des Sonnengottes Helios (Sol) dessen heilige Rinder hüten. Umsonst warnen Teiresias und Kirke den Odysseus, daß sein und seiner Gefährten Schicksal von der Unversehrtheit der Rinder abhänge (ebd. 11,110-112; 12,137-139): Als Odysseus in Schlaf fällt, schlachten seine völlig ausgehungerten Gefährten, von Eurylochos [1] angestiftet, die Tiere (ebd. 12,260-402), weshalb sie sp…

Sokos

(78 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
[English version] (Σῶκος). Troianer, Sohn des Hippasos [2], fordert Odysseus zum Kampf heraus, um den Tod seines Bruders Charops [4] zu rächen (Hom. Il. 11,430-433: eine der seltenen direkten Reden eines “kleinen” Kämpfers). Er verwundet Odysseus so schwer, daß dieser das Schlachtfeld verlassen muß, aber nicht ohne vorher den flüchtenden S. getötet und mit einer höhnenden Triumphrede bedacht zu haben (ebd. 11,434-458). Nünlist, René Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, Bd. 2, 1988, s. v. S., 1001-1004.

Scherie

(159 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
[English version] (Σχερίη). Land der Phaiakes, letzte Station auf Odysseus' Irrfahrten. Wie bei fast all diesen Stationen hat man sich auch bei S. seit der Ant. den Kopf über die Lokalisierung zerbrochen. Unter den zahlreichen Lösungsvorschlägen erscheint sehr früh (Alk. fr. 441 Voigt: [1. 19]) und am häufigsten Korkyra [1] (Korfu) [2. 294]. Für das auf der Rückfahrt von Ithaka in Stein verwandelte Schiff der Phaiaken (Hom. Od. 13,161-164) kommen gleich mehrere Felsformationen vor Korfu in Frage. …

Sisyphos

(329 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
[English version] (Σίσυφος). Myth. Betrüger und Büßer in der Unterwelt. Sohn des Aiolos [1], Vater des Glaukos [2], Großvater des Bellerophon, Gründer und König von Korinth (Korinthos), legendärer und sprichwörtlicher Betrüger, der zur Strafe in der Unterwelt einen Felsblock den Berg hochwälzen muß, der jeweils unmittelbar vor Erreichen des Gipfels ins Tal zurückrollt (Hom. Od. 11,593-600). Die Strafe handelt S. sich dadurch ein, daß er den Tod überwindet (d. h. die dem Menschen gesetzten Grenzen …

Tithonos

(212 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
[English version] (Τιθωνός). Angehöriger der troianischen Königsfamilie, Enkel des Ilos [1], Sohn des Laomedon [1] und somit einer von Priamos' Brüdern. Eos, die Göttin der Morgenröte, entführt den äußerst attraktiven T. und macht ihn zu ihrem Liebhaber (vgl. Kephalos [1], Kleitos [1], Orion [1]). Nach der homerischen Formel bringt Eos das Morgenlicht, indem sie sich ‘vom Lager des T. erhebt’ (Hom. Il. 11,1 u.ö.). Aus der Verbindung geht der Aithiopenkönig Memnon [1] hervor. Eos erbittet von Zeus …

Palaiphatos of Athens (44)

(7,815 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
This entry was prepared by René Nünlist and published on 1 October 2018. About this Historian Historian: Palaiphatos of Athens Jacoby number: 44 Attested works: Creation of the World: T1; Birth of Apollo and Artemis: T1; Utterances and Speeches of Aphrodite and Eros: T1; Strife of Athena and Poseidon: T1; Lock of Leto T1; <On> Unbelievable <Tales>: T2; History of Cyprus: T3; History of Delos: T3; History of Attica: T3; History of Arabia: T3; On the Unbelievable <Tales>: T3a; Egyptian Theology: T4; Mythical Stories: T4; Solutions to Mythical Stories: T4; Synopses: T4; Trojan History: T4, F…

Servius (47)

(488 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René
This entry was prepared by René Nünlist and published on 1 October 2018. About this Historian Historian: Servius Jacoby number: 47 Attested works: Trojan History: F1 Historian's date: unknown Historical focus: I. Mythological History (Genealogy and Mythography) | C. Monographs, Novels, Pseudographic Literature Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 47 F 1 Source: Scholion rec. B* on Homer, Iliad 21.242 (vol. 4, p. 264 Dindorf) Work mentioned: Trojan History Source date: various Source language: Greek Source genre: Commentaries, History and Criticism Fragment subject: Mythology, Greek - L…

Eumaeus

(104 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Εὔμαιος; Eúmaios). The faithful swineherd of  Odysseus (Hom. Od., esp. Bks. 14-17; 20-22); son of a king, he was abducted as a child owing to the betrayal of a Phoenician maid and was sold. Hard-working, caring, pious and unconditionally faithful to his absent master, E. represents the type of the loyal vassal. The meeting with Telemachus on E.'s farm, in accordance with Athena's directive (Hom. Od.13,404), marks the beginning of Odysseus's homecoming within Ithaca. From there E. …

Hector

(755 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ἕκτωρ/ Héktōr; Lat. Hector). Son of the Trojan royal couple  Priamus and  Hecabe, husband of  Andromache and father of  Astyanax. As the strongest fighter of Priamus' sons, H. (and not Paris, who is to blame for the war) is responsible for the defence of the besieged city in The Iliad. He is most successful on the third day of battle: after Agamemnon's wounding (Hom. Il. 11,200ff.), H. breaks through the Achaean wall (12,445ff.), and - despite a set-back (14,409ff.) - he pushes them back to their ships and sets one of them on f…

Iphianassa

(163 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Ἰφιάνασσα; Iphiánassa). [German version] [1] Daughter of Proetus and Stheneboea Daughter of  Proetus and  Stheneboea (Hes. fr. 129,16-24 M-W), cursed together with her sisters Lysippe and Iphinoe with madness owing to disrespect to the cult of Dionysus (Hes. fr. 131 M-W) or slander of Hera (Bacchyl. 11,40ff.). Finally, by sacrificing to Artemis Proteus makes her change Hera's mind. According to another version (Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 114; Hdt. 9,34), the seer  Melampus heals the daughters after haggling fo…

Tithonus

(219 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Τιθωνός; Tithōnós). Member of the Trojan royal family, grandson of Ilus [1], son of Laomedon [1] and hence a brother of Priamus. Eos, the  goddess of dawn, abducted the extremely attractive T. and makes him her lover (cf. Cephalus [1], Cleitus [1], Orion [1]). According to the Homeric formula Eos brings light in the morning, by rising from "T.' bed" (Hom. Il. 11,1 et passim). The result of their union is the Aethiopian king Memnon [1]. Eos asks Zeus for immortality for T., but neg…

Calchas

(284 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Κάλχας; Kálchas, Lat. Calchas). Son of Thestor, seer and augur for the Greeks during the Trojan War who ‘knew what is, what will be, and what was’ (Hom. Il. 1.70). To the army gathered in  Aulis awaiting departure, C. correctly prophesied, based on the flight of birds, that Troy would be defeated in the tenth year of the war (Hom. Il. 2.303ff.; Kypria argumentum p. 40 Bernabé). When the Greek fleet was prevented from departing due to lack of wind, C. explained that Artemis was ang…

Dolon

(126 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Δόλων/ Dólōn, cf. δόλος/ dólos, ‘guile’). Son of the Trojan herald Eumedes. During a night reconnaissance raid in the Greek camp, for which he had volunteered in order to gain Achilles' immortal horses, he fell into the hands of the Greek scouts Diomedes and Odysseus. In an (unsuccessful) bid to save his skin, he readily betrayed his own cause, which cost the life of the Trojan ally, the Thracian King Rhesus (Hom. Il. 10, so-called Doloneia, probably post- Iliad [1]; [Eur.] Rhes.). By contrast with this portrait of D. ─ for the Stoa he was the archetypical…

Iambe

(142 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ἰάμβη; Iámbē). Maid in the house of  Celeus, where  Demeter, mourning her abducted daughter Persephone, accepts nothing but a simple chair, which I. offers to her (H. Hom. 2,192-197; reverse ritual related to thrónōsis, placing the initiant on a foot stool [1]). I. makes Demeter laugh with her cheeky jokes and provocative insults, thus improving her mood (H. Hom. 2,202-204, cf. SH 680,51ff.). This reflects the cultic practice of aischrologia (ritual insult). Evidently, there is a connection between the mythical figure of I. and the literary genre …

Procrustes

(109 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Προκρούστης/ Prokroústēs, 'stretcher', Lat. Procrustes). Highwayman in Attica who would lie in wait for travellers and torture them to death by stretching them and hitting their limbs with a hammer (alternative name: Προκόπτης/ Prokóptēs, 'persuader'), until they fitted his enormous bed ('Procrustes' bed'). Together with Sinis and Sciron, P. represents a 'plague on the land' from which  Theseus with civilizing intentions liberates the region (Bacchyl. 18,19-30; Xen. Mem. 2,1,14; Diod. Sic. 4,59; Hyg. Fab. 38; Ov…

Meriones

(284 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Μηριόνης; Mēriónēs). Cretan, son of Molus (Molos). As a young soldier efficient in battle and a faithful and devoted follower of Idomeneus [1], he takes part in the Trojan campaign (Hom. Il.). Together with the sons of Nestor, Antilochus and Thrasymedes, M. represents the second guard of the Greek army consisting of younger warriors. This guard performed duties suited to their age (e.g. night watch: ibid. 9,79ff.) and had to prove their worth on the battle field, mainly after the …

Laertes

(236 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Λαέρτης; Laértēs). Son of Arcesius and of Chalcomedusa, husband of Anticlea, father of Odysseus (cf. the latter's patronymic, Laertiádēs, ‘son of L.’); in his various depictions, the last is the most important function of L., who has little significance of his own. The image of him in the ‘Odyssey’ is the formative one it has shaped all later representations. Before the beginning of the Trojan War, for reasons of age, L. passes his power to Odysseus. Even when Odysseus does return to assume the th…

Thrinacie

(95 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Θρινακίη; Thrinakíē). Mythical island, near Scylla [1] and Charybdis (Hom. Od. 12,260f.), on which the daughters of the sun god Helios (Sol) mind his sacred oxen. In vain Teiresias and Circe warn Odysseus that his and his companions' fate depends on the oxen's being unharmed (ibid. 11,110-112; 12,137-139): when Odysseus falls asleep, his starving companions, instigated by Eurylochus [1], slaughter the animals (ibid. 12,260-402), and all therefore later die, while Odysseus alone su…

Teichoscopy

(119 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (τειχοσκοπία/ teichoskopía, ‘viewing from the walls’). Term, coined already in Antiquity (Schol. Eur. Phoen. 88), for the scene in the Iliad in which Helen (Helena [I 1]) identifies for Priamus the most important leaders of the Greek army (Agamemnon, Odysseus, Menelaus, Ajax [1], Idomeneus [1]) from the Trojan walls (Hom. Il. 3,161-244, imitated e.g. by Eur. Phoen. 88-192). The Homeric narrator has Helen observe an event happening elsewhere at the same time and present it verbally toPriam (and hence …

Cedalium

(100 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Κηδαλίων, κήδαλον, Kēdalíōn, kḗdalon, which probably describes a tool: ‘poker’?). Comes from the island of Naxos, initiates  Hephaestus into the blacksmith's craft at the request of his mother  Hera (schol. Hom. Il. 14,296). On Lemnos, Hephaestus makes C. the leader of blinded  Orion. Sitting on his shoulders, C. leads Orion towards the sun, through whose rays Orion is healed of his blindness (Hes. fr. 148a M-W; Eratosth. Katasterismoi 32; Apollod. 1,4,3). Scarcely more than the title is known of Sophocles' satyr play ‘C.. (TrGF IV fr. 328-333). Nünlist, René (Basl…

Philoetius

(86 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Φιλοίτιος; Philoítios). Odysseus’ cowherd (Hom. Od. 20-22); like the swineherd Eumaeus he epitomizes the loyal retainer. After Odysseus has revealed his identity to them and has assured himself of their loyalty, the two of them, who are largely cast in the same mould [1], assist him in killing the suitors. In doing so, the two of them take their revenge on their counterpart, the disloyal goatherd Melanthius [1]. Nünlist, René (Basle) Bibliography 1 B. Fenik, Studies in the Odyssey (Hermes ES 30), 1974, 172-173.

Copreus

(173 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Κοπρεύς; Kopreýs). [German version] [1] Servant of Eurystheus Son of  Pelops. He transmits to  Hercules the tasks ordered by  Eurystheus, who fears personal contact. For this reason, Homer reverses the normally descending genealogical line in hero epics and refers to C. as ‘the worse father of the better son’ (Hom. Il. 15,639-641). In Eur. Heracl., C. demands in Eurystheus' name the release of the  Heraclidae, who are seeking asylum from the Attic king  Demophon [2]. According to Apollod. 2,5,1, Eurystheus had cleansed C. from a blood guilt. The name is not originally derived from kópro…

Talthybius

(130 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ταλθύβιος; Talthýbios). Herald and follower of Agamemnon (Hom. Il. 1,320 f.), at whose command he and Eurybates [1] unenthusiastically go and fetch from Achilles [1] the object of their dispute, Briseis (ibid. 1,327-347). T. also acts in the service of all Greeks, e.g. when he and the Trojan herald Idaeus [3a] interrupt the single combat between Ajax [1] and Hector (ibid. 7,273-312); as a general Greek herald he also appears in Euripides (Hec., Tro.), who makes the idea of the "un…

Leiodes

(75 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ληώδης, Λειώδης; Lēṓdēs, Leiṓdēs). The son of Oenops, priest. He is one of Penelope's suitors, whom he loathes, however, keeping to himself. L. is the first suitor to try his luck in the archery contest and is then reproached by Antinous [1] for his supposedly defeatist advice (Hom. Od. 21,144ff.). When Odysseus slays the suitors, L. points out his detached relationship to the others in vain (ibid. 22,310-329). Nünlist, René (Basle)

Tereus

(121 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Τηρεύς; Tēreús). Mythical king from Thrace. By marrying Procne he allies himself with the Attic king Pandion [1], whose other daughter Philomele he rapes. In order that she should not be able to denounce him, T. cuts out her tongue. She depicts the crime on a loom, however. Procne avenges herself on her husband by cruelly killing their son Itys. When T. in turn wants to take revenge all three transform themselves into birds, T. into a hoopoe, the sisters into a swallow and a nightingale (Apollod. 3,193-195; Ov. Met. 6,424-674). Sophocles wrote a (largely lost) Tēreús (fr. 5…

Irus

(117 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Ἶρος; Îros). [German version] [1] Son of Actor Son of Actor from Opus, father of the Argonaut Eurytion, whom  Peleus accidentally killed during a hunt (Pind. Fr. 48). I. refused the sheep and cattle offered as atonement (Antoninus Liberalis 38). Nünlist, René (Basle) [German version] [2] Derisive nickname for the beggar Arnaeus Derisive nickname (secondary masculine form of the name of the messenger to the gods  Iris: ‘Mr Iris’) for the beggar Arnaeus, because he ran errands for everyone (Hom. Od. 18,6f.). Greedy, presumptuous, but at the same t…

Rhesus

(268 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (῾Ρῆσος/ Rhêsos, Latin Rhesus). King of Thrace, son of Eïoneus (Hom. Il. 10,138) or of the river god Strymon ([Eur.] Rhes. 279). R. and his snow-white horse appear only in the tenth year of the war as an ally of the Trojans and dies on the first night, without having played any part in battle. Caught on his nightly tour of reconnoissance, Dolon has betrayed R. and his men. Diomedes kills the men in their sleep, as R. has foreseen in a nightmare, and Odysseus makes off with the horses…

Cebriones

(89 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Κεβριόνης; Kebriónēs). Bastard son of  Priamus, half-brother of  Hector, who makes him his chariot driver after Archeptolemus' death (Hom. Il. 8,318f.). C. participates in the storming of the Greeks' ship camp; the chariot is entrusted to a weaker fighter for this time period (ibid. 12,91ff.). Finally, Patroclus kills C. with the throw of a stone and ridicules him as he falls from the chariot by comparing him with a diver (ibid. 16,737-750). Nünlist, René (Basle) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, Vol. 1, 1988, 677-679.

Coeranus

(203 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Κοίρανος; Koíranos). [German version] [1] Descendant of Melampus Belongs to the family tree of  Melampus (Hes. Cat. 136,3), but his exact position therein is not certain; father of the seer  Poly(e)idus (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 112; Paus. 1,43,5). Nünlist, René (Basle) [German version] [2] Charioteer of Meriones Charioteer for  Meriones; he saves  Idomeneus' [1] life by bringing a chariot to him at exactly the right moment, so that he instead of Idomeneus is hit by  Hector's spear (Hom. Il. 17,611-614). The motif of ‘substitution death’ is typical of Homer's epics [1]. Nünlist, René (Bas…

Cresphontes

(111 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Κρεσφόντης). [German version] [1] Heraclidus Heraclidus ( Heraclidae), husband of  Merope. In the lottery for the Peloponnese, C. uses a trick to gain Messenia. After a short reign, he falls victim to a revolt. His only surviving son,  Aepytus [4], avenges him (on the motif:  Orestes) and secures the paternal throne for himself (Paus. 4,3,3-8; 8,5,6-7). Nünlist, René (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Cresphontes [1] Son of [1] in Euripides' tragedy of the same name, in which C.'s mother almost kills him by mistake while avenging the murder of his father. Nünlist, René (Basle) Bibliogr…

Laestrygones

(260 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Λαιστρυγόνες; Laistrýgónes). A mythic and fairy-tale-like people of man-eating giants, who raise cattle but do not engage in agriculture (cf. Cyclopes). In the course of his wanderings, Odysseus lands in their country, where the sun never sets. After an initial friendly greeting of his scouts by the king's daughter, the mood shifts when they catch sight of the giant queen. The king, summoned by his wife, devours one of the Greeks, and the rest of the L. destroy the entire fleet.…

Socus

(83 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Σῶκος; Sôkos). Trojan, son of Hippasus [2], challenges Odysseus to battle to avenge the death of his brother Charops [4] (Hom. Il. 11,430-433: one of the rare direct speeches by a 'minor' combatant). He wounds Odysseus so badly that he has to leave the battle field, but not before killing the fleeing S. and directing a sneering speech of triumph to him (ibid. 11,434-458). Nünlist, René (Basle) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 2, 1988, s. v. S., 1001-1004.

Thersites

(222 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Θερσίτης; Thersítēs). Greek warrior at Troy. In the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,211-277) T. is a physically deformed (the corresponding description is unique in the Iliad) and quarrelsome grumbler, hated by all for his sarcastic remarks - esp. by Achilles [1] and Odysseus. After the latter has stopped the army from returning home, T. attacks Agamemnon with arguments consciously referring to those of Achilles (Hom. Il. B. 1) but also criticizing him. Odysseus silences him by attacking him verbally and physically, …
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